Daniel P. Barron

Romans 1

Saturday, January 9, 2021 

1 Paul, a servant of Joshua Christ, called an apostle, separated unto God's good news, 2 which he promised through his prophets in holy writings, 3 concerning his son, the one who is from David's seed according to flesh, 4 the one determined i to be son of God in power, according to spirit of holiness, by resurrection of the dead, Joshua Christ the lord of us. ii 5 Through whom we received grace and apostleship iii for obedience of faith in all the nations for his name, 6 in whom you are also called of Joshua Christ.


8 First indeed, I give thanks to my God through Joshua Christ for all of you, because your faith is being proclaimed in the whole world. 9 For the God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the good news of his son, how unceasingly I make mention of you, 10 always in my prayers beseeching, if somehow now I will succeed by the will of the God to come to you.


11 For I long to see you, so that I might give a spiritual gift to you, for you to be established, iv 12 and this is, to be encouraged together with you through the faith in each other, of you and also me. 13 And I do not want you to be ignorant, brethren, that often I planned to come to you and was prevented until now, that I might have some fruit also among you, just as in the other nations.


14 I am a debtor to Greeks and also barbarians, to wise and also to foolish. 15 So, as for me, ready to preach the good news also to you who are in Rome. 16 For I am not ashamed of the good news of Christ, for it is power of God unto salvation to everyone who believes, to a Jew first, and also to a Greek. 17 For God's righteousness is revealed in it from faith to faith, just as it has been written, “And the righteous shall live by faith.” v


18 For God's wrath is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness. 19 Because, what is known of the God is manifest in them, vi for the God manifested to them. 20 For the invisible things of him from creation of world are understood vii in the things made. He is clearly seen, viii both his eternal power and divinity, ix so that they are without excuse.


21 Because, knowing the God, they did not glorify as God, nor were thankful, but became futile x in their thoughts; xi and their without understanding xii heart was darkened. 22 Professing to be wise, they became foolish, xiii 23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible xiv God into a likeness of an image of corruptible man and birds and four footed animals and crawling creatures.


24 Therefore, the God also delivered them into the desires of their hearts into uncleanness, to dishonor their bodies among themselves, 25 who exchanged the truth of the God into the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the creator, who is blessed into the ages, amen.


26 Because of this, the God delivered them into dishonorable passions. For even their females xv exchanged the natural use for what is against nature. xvi 27 And likewise also the males, leaving the natural use of the female, burned in their longing xvii for one another, males in xviii males committing the shame, and receiving in themselves the penalty of their error which was due. 28 And just as they did not approve to have the God in knowledge, the God delivered them unto a debased mind to do things not fitting; 29 being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, badness, xix full of envy, murder, xx strife, deceit, malice, xxi gossips, xxii 30 evil-speakers, xxiii God haters, xxiv insolent, xxv proud, boasters, inventors of bad things, disobedient to parents, xxvi 31 without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, xxvii irreconcilable, xxviii unmerciful. 32 Who, knowing the righteous requirements of the God, xxix that those who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do them, but also approve those practicing.


Acts 28 - Romans 2


Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdfs: here and here.

  1. ὁρισθέντος (hoisthentos) “determined”; YLT, Green “marked out”; NKJV, KJV, NAS “declared” - same verb found also in Luke 22:22 (“determined”); Acts 2:23 (“determined”); 10:42 (“ordained”); 11:29 (“determined”); 17:26 (“determined”), 31 (“ordained”); Hebrews 4:7 (“designates”). ^
  2. τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν (tou kuriou hêmôn) “the lord of us” or “our lord” - this last part is in vs 3 in the KJV, NKJV ^
  3. ἀποστολὴν (apostolên) “apostleship” - see footnote for Matthew 10:2. ^
  4. στηριχθῆναι (stêpichthênai) “to be established”; YLT, NKJV, KJV, NAS “may be established”; CSB, CEB, DRA, ESV, LEB, NET, RSV “strengthen” – same root word in Luke 16:26 “fixed” (NKJV); 22:32 “strengthen” (NKJV); 2 Peter 1:12 “established” (NKJV). ^
  5. Habakkuk 2:4 Hebrew reads, “by his faith” תו מונת אמ בא) be'emunâto); LXX “by my faith” ἐκ πίστεώς μου (ek pisteôs mou) – for “my faith” see footnote for Mark 11:22. ^
  6. John 1:9; Job 33:14-30 ^
  7. νοούμενα (noumena) “are understood” present passive plural participle ^
  8. καθορᾶται (kathoratai) present passive singular indicative, thus, “He is clearly seen” ^
  9. θειότης (theiotês) “divinity” ASV, DARBY, DRA, Phillips, JUB, WEB; “Godhead” YLT, Green, KJV, NKJV; “divine nature” NAS - The Greek word for "Godhead" (NKJV) in Colossians 2:9 is θεοτητος (theotêtos). The KJV has "Godhead" in Acts 17:29 (NKJV "Divine Nature") for its translation of θειον (theion). θειον (theion) is also found in 2 Peter 1:3-4. There the KJV and NKJV translate both times as "divine." ^
  10. ἐματαιώθησαν (emataiôthêsan) “became futile” NKJV, NAS; “became vain” KJV, Green; “were made vain” YLT; “became worthless” NIRV – this is a passive indicative verb, meaning it happen to them. Related noun (ματαιότητι) in similar usage in Ephesians 4:17, “in the futility of their mind.” Related adjective (μάταιοι) used in similar fashion in 1 Corinthians 3:20 “thoughts of the wise . . . are futile.” ^
  11. διαλογισμοῖς (dialogismois) “thoughts” - See Genesis 6:5; Psalm 10:4 (“all his thoughts are 'There is no God” NAS); Psalm 49:11; 64:6;Proverbs 15:26; Isaiah 55:7-9; 65:2; Jeremiah 6:19; Amos 4:13. ^
  12. ἀσύνετος (asunetos) “without understanding” DARBY; “undiscerning” Green; “foolish” NKJV, KJV, NAS – found also in Matthew 15:16 (“without understanding”); Mark 7:18 (“without understanding”); Romans 1:31 (“undiscerning”; “without understanding” NAS); 10:19 (“foolish”; “without understanding” NAS). ^
  13. ἐμωράνθησαν (emôranthêsan) “became foolish” - passive = happened to them. ^
  14. ἀφθάρτου (aphthartou) “incorruptible” NKJV, NAS, YLT, Green – found also in 1 Corinthians 9:25 (“imperishable”); 15:52 (“incorruptible”); 1 Timothy 1:17 (“immortal”); 1 Peter 1:4, 23; 3:4 (“incorruptible”). ^
  15. θήλειαι (thêleiai) “females” - plural form of same word for “female” as in Matthew 19:4; Mark 10:6; Galatians 3:28. ^
  16. This is the only verse in the Bible that specifically addresses lesbianism. Female homosexuality goes uncondemned in the law (Genesis – Deuteronomy). Male homosexuality is condemned in Genesis 19; Leviticus 18:22; 20:13. ^
  17. ὀρέξει (orexei) “longing” YLT; “lust” NKJV, KJV; “desire” NAS – only found here. ^
  18. ἐν (en) “in”; NKJV, YLT, etc. “with” - same exact word as is translated “in” later in the verse, “in themselves.” ^
  19. κακίᾳ (kakia) “badness” - see footnote for Matthew 6:34. ^
  20. Romans 3:15 ^
  21. κακοηθείας (kakotheias) “malice” NAS; “malignity” KJV; “evil-mindedness” NKJV; “evil dispositions” YLT; “evil habits” Green – only found here. Malice = “the intention or desire to do evil” (Oxford). ^
  22. ψιθυριστάς (psithuristas) “gossips” NAS; “whisperers” NKJV, KJV, YLT – only here. There is also ψιθυρισμοί (psithurismoi) in 2 Corinthians 12:20 (“gossip” NAS; “whisperings” NKJV); φλύαροι (phluaroi) “gossips” 1 Timothy 5:13 and the related φλυαρῶν (phluarôn) “prating” 3 John 10. See also footnote for Leviticus 19:16. ^
  23. καταλάλους (katalalous) - “evil-speakers” YLT; “backbiters” NKJV, KJV; “slanderers” NAS – only here ^
  24. θεοστυγεῖς (theostugeis) “God-haters” YLT, Green; “haters of God” NKJV, KJV, NAS – only here. ^
  25. ὑβριστάς (hubristas) “insolent” NAS, Green; “violent” NKJV, “despiteful” KJV; “insulting” YLT – found also in 1 Timothy 1:13 (“insolent man” NKJV; “violent aggressor” NAS). ^
  26. See Exodus 21:15, 17; Leviticus 19:3 (lit. “fear”); 20:9; Ezekiel 22:7. ^
  27. ἀστόργους (astorgous) “unloving” NKJV, NAS, “without natural affection” KJV, YLT, Green – found also in 2 Timothy 3:3. For the concept of “without natural affection” see Isaiah 49:15a? Yes, Leviticus 26:29; Deuteronomy 28:53, 56-57; 2 Kings 6:28-29; Jeremiah 19:9; Lamentations 2:20; 4:10; Ezekiel 5:10 (Isaiah 9:20). ^
  28. ἀσπόνδους (aspovdous) “irreconcilable” A&G, Louw-Nida; “implacable” YLT, KJV; “unforgiving” NKJV, Green; MT and RT, not in CT – found also in 2 Timothy 3:3. ^
  29. Men know God's standard, but turn from it. See, e.g. Leviticus 18:24-28 in which God condemns the nations before the law is given to Israel. ^

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