Daniel P. Barron

Luke 3

Wednesday, November 9, 2022 

1 Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius i Caesar, while Pontius Pilate ii was ruling Judea, and Herod was tetrarch iii of Galilee, and his brother Philip iv was tetrarch of Iturea v and the area of Trachonitis, vi and Lysanias vii was tetrarch of Abilene, viii 2 during the chief priesthood ix of Annas x and Caiaphas, xi the word of God came xii to John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness. xiii

3 And he went into all the surrounding area of the Jordan, preaching an immersion xiv of repentance xv for the forgiveness of sins, xvi 4 as it is written in the book xvii of the words of Isaiah the prophet, saying,

“A voice shouting xviii in the wilderness prepare xix the way of the Lord, make his xx paths straight. 5 Every valley shall be filled xxi and every mountain and hill will be brought low, and the xxii crooked xxiii shall be made straight and the rough ways smooth; 6 and all flesh shall see the salvation of God.” xxiv

7 Then he said to the multitudes who were coming out to be immersed by him, “Brood of vipers! xxv Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath? xxvi 8 Do then fruits xxvii worthy of the repentance, xxviii and do not begin xxix to say in yourselves, ‘We have father Abraham.’ xxx For I say to you that God is able out of these stones to raise up children to Abraham. xxxi 9 And even now the ax is laid at the root of the trees. xxxii Therefore, every tree that does not bear good fruit he cuts off and casts into the fire.” xxxiii

10 And the multitudes xxxiv were asking him saying, “What then should we do?” xxxv 11 And he answered and said to them, “He who has two tunics, xxxvi let him give to him who has none, and he who has food let him do likewise.” xxxvii

12 And tax-collectors xxxviii also came to be immersed, and said xxxix to him, “Teacher, what should we do?” 13 And he said to them, “Collect no more than has been appointed for you.”

14 And soldiers also were asking him, saying, “And what should we do?” And he said to them, “Do not shake anyone down, xl nor accuse falsely, and be content xli with your wages.” xlii

15 And while the people were expecting and all were reasoning in their hearts about John whether or not he was the Christ, 16 xliii John answered, saying to all, “I indeed immerse you in xliv water, but one who is mightier than I is coming, whose strap xlv of his sandals I am not worthy to loose. He will immerse you in the Holy Spirit and fire, 17 whose winnowing fan is in his hand and he will thoroughly clean out his threshing floor and gather the wheat into his barn; xlvi but he will burn the chaff in inextinguishable xlvii fire.”

18 And so with many other exhortations he preached good news to the people. 19 But Herod the tetrach, being rebuked by him concerning Herodias, his brother Philip’s wife, and concerning all the evil which Herod did, xlviii 20 added also this, above all, and he shut John up in prison. xlix

21 And it came to pass, when all the people were immersed, Joshua also was immersed and when he prayed, the heaven was opened 22 and the Holy Spirit descended in bodily l form like a dove upon him, and a voice from heaven came saying, “You are my beloved son, in you I am well pleased.” li

23 And Joshua Himself was about thirty years old at the beginning, being (as was supposed the son of Joseph), of Heli, 24 of Matthat, of Levi, of Melchi, of Janna, lii of Joseph, 25 of Mattathiah, of Amos, of Nahum, of Esli, of Naggai, 26 of Maath, of Mattathiah, of Semei, liii of Joseph, liv of Judah, lv 27 of Joannas, of Rhesa, of Zerubbabel, of Shealtiel, of Neri, 28 of Melchi, of Addi, of Cosam, of Elmodam, lvi of Er, 29 of Jose, lvii of Eliezer, of Jorim, of Matthat, lviii of Levi, 30 of Sumeon, lix of Judah, of Joseph, of Jonan, lx of Eliakim, 31 of Melea, of Menan, lxi of Mattatha, lxii of Nathan, lxiii of David, 32 of Jesse, of Obed, lxiv of Boaz, lxv of Salmon, lxvi of Nahshon, 33 of Amminadab, of Ram, lxvii of Joram, lxviii of Hezron, of Perez, of Judah, 34 of Jacob, of Isaac, of Abraham, of Terah, of Nahor, 35 of Serug, of Reu, of Peleg, of Eber, of Shelah, 36 of Cainan, lxix of Arphaxad, of Shem, of Noah, of Lamech, 37 of Mathuselah, of Enoch, of Jared, of Mahalalel, of Cainan, 38 of Enosh, of Seth, of Adam, of God.

Luke 2 - Luke 4

Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdf. lxx

  1. τιβεριου (tiberiou) - “Tiberius” - only found here. According to history (which is not always accurate, Ecclesiastes 1:11), he reigned in the Roman empire from 14 AD to 37 AD. ^
  2. ποντιου πιλατου (pontiou pilatou) - “Pontius Pilate” - History claims his reign was from 26 AD to 36 AD (Josephus, Antiquities 18.32f, 35, 89). ^
  3. τετραρχουτος (tetrarchountos) - “tetrarch” - apparently the word indicates governing a fourth part of a province, the word for four being τετρας (tetras). ^
  4. φιλιππου (philippou) - “Philip” - Apparently, this is Herod’s brother Philip whose wife (Herodias) Herod had taken for himself (Mark 6:17). There is no word as to whether Philip approved of this or not, but it was clearly wrong (Romans 7:1-3; see also Leviticus 20:10; Proverbs 6:32). [For divorce and remarriage, see Matthew 5:32; 19:9; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; 1 Corinthians 7:15.] ^
  5. ιτουραιας (itouraias) - “Iturea” - Only mentioned here. History claims this was an area in southern Lebanon, near the current border with Israel. ^
  6. τραχωνιτιδος (trachônitidos) - “Trachonitis” - only mentioned here. History claims this was an area in modern day Syria south of Damascus. ^
  7. λθσανιου (lusaniou) - “Lysanias” - only mentioned here. There is little known historically (i.e. outside the Biblical account) of this person, other than a possible inscription of him found near Damascus which apparently mentions “Lysanias the tetrarch.” The only other Lysanias near that time period apparently died around 36 BC. ^
  8. αβιληνης (abilênês) - “Abilene” - only mentioned here. History claims this was an area North of Damascus. ^
  9. αρχιερεως (archiereôs) - "chief priesthood" singular noun - See footnote for John 11:49. See also Leviticus 20:10-15 (also interesting, verses 16-24). Joshua is the Chief Priest according to the order of Melchizedek (Hebrews 2:17; 3:1; 4:14-15; 5:1, 5, 10; 6:20; 7:26; 8:1, 3; 9:7, 11, 25; 10:21; 13:11). ^
  10. Αννα (hanna) - “Annas” - found also only in John 18:13, 24; Acts 4:6^
  11. αννα (anna) - “Annas” - καιαφα (kaiapha) - “Caiaphas” - Here they are both mentioned as high priests. Matthew 26:3, 57; John 11:49 (“that year”); 18:19 (“that year”); mention Caiaphas as high priest. Acts 4:5 notes Annas as high priest. Also, John 18:13 mentions Annas is Caiaphas’ father-in-law. By Acts 23:2 there is another high priest by the name of Ananias (ανανιας, ananias). ^
  12. “the word of God came” - this is similar to 1 Kings 12:22; 1 Chronicles 17:3; and John 10:35. How it came (other than John 10:35, see 2 Peter 1:21) is not specified. ^
  13. ερημω (erêmô) - “wilderness” - This could also be translated “desert” (e.g. NIV). It is the same word used, for example, in Matthew 14:13 & 15 (NKJV “deserted”); Mark 1:35 (NKJV “solitary”), 45; 6:31-32, 35 (NKJV “deserted”). ^
  14. βαπτισμα (baptisma) - “immersion” - What is typically translated “baptism” (which is more of a transliteration than a translation) is immersion, and this can be seen in the use of this Greek word, as it is used for being “buried with Him through baptism” (NKJV Romans 6:4; Colossians 2:12). Also, its figurative usage of Christ’s death and resurrection depicts an immersion as well (Matthew 20:22 [Mark 10:38]; Luke 12:50; see also Matthew 12:39-41; 16:4; Luke 11:29-32). Also, the verb form βαπτιζω (baptizô) besides being used for “baptize” is also used for washing (e.g. Mark 7:4; Luke 11:38) and being immersed into the Red Sea (1 Corinthians 10:2). It is also used in the LXX in 2 Kings 5:14 for when Naaman dipped in the Jordan seven times. Moreover, the closely related noun βαπτισμος (baptismos) is used for washing (e.g. Mark 7:4, 8 [RT]; Hebrews 6:2; 9:10). Also, another related word is βαπτω (baptô) that means to “dip” (e.g. Luke 16:24; John 13:26; Revelation 19:13). For a Biblical picture of “baptism,” see Acts 8:36-39. There is a Greek word for “sprinkle” (ραντιζω, hrantizô) and it is found in Hebrews 9:13, 19, 21; 10:22; 11:28; 12:24; and 1 Peter 1:2^
  15. μετανοιας (metanoias) - “repentance” - Lexicon (Walter Bauer, p. 512) gives as a definition “a change of mind” which is supported in Hebrews 12:17 (see Genesis 27:30-41). Examples of repentance can be seen in Jonah 3:4-10; Isaiah 55:6-7; Psalm 7:12; Proverbs 1:22-23 (for continual turning see Proverbs 13:14; 14:27; 15:24); Acts 26:18 (the spiritual reality); and 1 Peter 3:11^
  16. “for the forgiveness of sins” - Here clearly an act (a “work”) is directly associated with the “forgiveness of sins.” Acts 2:38 likewise says, “Repent, . . . be baptized . . . for the remission of sins.” Matthew 26:28 speaks of Christ’s blood being shed for the remission of sins (see also Luke 24:46-47; Hebrews 9:22), and Acts 10:43 notes remission of sins is granted to whoever believes. Faith produces repentance (e.g. Jonah 3:5; James 2:14-26) and immersion (baptism) into truth (i.e. obedience to God, Romans 10:10). Also, an interesting verse on this, Hebrews 10:22 (“bodies washed with pure water”). ^
  17. βιβλω (biblô) - “book” ^
  18. βοωντον (boôntos) - “shouting” - translated usually “cry out” or “shout.” It is used also in Matthew 3:3 (John 1:23); 27:46 (Mark 15:34); Luke 9:38; 18:7, 38; Acts 8:7; 17:6; 25:24; Galatians 4:27. For some verses on shouting, note Psalm 5:11; 32:11; 33:3; 35:27; 47:1-5; 66:1-4; 81:1; 95:1-2 (-11); 98:1-6; 100:1-2; 132:9 (Revelation 1:6); Isaiah 12:4-6; [Zechariah 9:9]; 1 Thessalonians 4:16^
  19. Malachi 4:5-6 (Luke 1:16-17) ^
  20. LXX (Isaiah 40:3) has “the paths of our God” (του θεου ημων, tou theou amon) instead of “his paths.” The Hebrew (Isaiah 40:3) has "make straight in the desert a highway for our God" (יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ, yasheru bâ`arâbâh mesillâh lê'lohêynu). ^
  21. Isaiah 40:4 in the Hebrew reads, “Every valley shall be exalted” (כָּל־גֶּיא יִנָּשֵׂא, kol-gey' yinnâsê'), which in concept is quite similar to “shall be filled” as is found in the Greek (LXX and Luke). ^
  22. LXX has “all” the crooked (παντα, panta). The Hebrew (Isaiah 40:4) has no all. ^
  23. σκολιὰ (skolia) - “crooked” - found also only in Acts 2:40 (“perverse”); Philippians 2:15 (“crooked”); 1 Peter 2:18 (“harsh”). ^
  24. The Hebrew (Isaiah 40:5) reads “all flesh shall see it together” (כָל־בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּו, khol-bâsâr yachdâv). “It” equals “the salvation of God.” Also, Luke completely leaves out "the glory of the Lord shall be revealed" which is found in both the Greek (LXX) and the Hebrew (Isaiah 40:5). ^
  25. This title is used also in Matthew 3:7; 12:34; 23:33. “Brood of sinful men” is found in Numbers 32:14 and “brood of evildoers” in Isaiah 1:4; 14:20. It is perfectly appropriate to call a bunch of sinners a “brood of vipers” (see also Deuteronomy 32:33; Psalm 58:3-5; 140:3; Romans 3:13). Also, note this is the kind of language John uses to “to make ready a people prepared for the Lord” (Luke 1:17), and John, the greatest man born of a woman (Matthew 11:11), displays no concern whatsoever in “turning people off” by his message. This is similar to Joshua's example (e.g. Luke 14:25-26; John 6:52-67). ^
  26. What is the answer? John 1:9; Proverbs 1:20-27; Romans 10:14. Some may confuse this passage with Matthew 3:7, but,
    1. Matthew says John spoke to the Pharisees and Sadducees. Luke says he spoke to the multitude.
    2. Matthew says he spoke to a certain group of people who simply came to his baptism. Luke says he spoke to a general group of people who came with the express purpose of being baptized by him.
    3. Luke 7:29-30 explicitly states the Pharisees “rejected the will of God for themselves, not having been baptized by him” (i.e. by John).


  27. καρπους (karpous) - Luke 3:8 has “fruits” (plural). Matthew 3:8 has “fruit” (singular), καρπον (karpon). ^
  28. “fruits worthy of repentance” - this concept is the same as found in Acts 26:20 and James 2:14-26. John the Baptist says, “Do . . .” Is this a gospel of “works” (Titus 3:5)? No, it is a gospel of “works” (Titus 3:8; 2:11-15). ^
  29. αρξησθε (arxêsthe) - Luke 3:8 uses this word “begin” whereas Matthew 3:9 uses the word for “think,” δοξητε (doxate). ^
  30. The rest of this sentence reveals John is addressing the false notion that simply because they were Jews (physical sons of Abraham, Romans 9:4-5) they somehow might escape the wrath of God, but only those of faith are sons of Abraham and escape the wrath (Romans 2:25-29; 9:6-11; Galatians 3:7). Yet, God does have plans to save “all [physical, that’s the context] Israel,” Romans 11:25-27 (see Revelation 7). ^
  31. How could it legitimately be physical children of Abraham if they were raised up from literal physical rocks rather than descendants of Abraham? Luke 1:37, no doubt, they would be genetically linked to Abraham and be real actual descendants, even though they came from rocks! ^
  32. i.e. God is ready to chop them down! See Psalm 7:11-13. John says, “now!” ^
  33. Luke 13:6-9; John 15:1-6; Romans 11:20-22 ^
  34. οχλοι (ochloi) - same word different form as in verse 7^
  35. Even though John’s words were “harsh,” they responded very appropriately. ^
  36. χιτωνας (chitonas) - This word is also found, for example, in Matthew 10:10; Mark 6:9; Luke 9:3; John 19:23; Jude 23^
  37. John details practical godly living (see also Isaiah 58:7-9). ^
  38. Tax-collecters were seen as evil people (Matthew 5:46-47; 18:17). Yet, they are not beyond the salvation of God (e.g. Matthew 21:31-32; Luke 18:9-14; 19:1-9). ^
  39. ειπον (eipon) - first singular, RT and MT; CT has third plural ειπαν (eipan). Because of the context here, CT appears to be the correct reading. ^
  40. διασεισητε (diaseisate) - used only here. KJV “violence;” NKJV “intimidate” with footnote, “Lit., shake down for money;” NAS “take money . . . by force;” NIV “extort money.” ^
  41. Hebrews 13:5 ^
  42. John’s words manifest there is no problem with a believer being a soldier. See also Psalm 18:34; 144:1; Proverbs 20:18; 24:5-6; Ecclesiastes 3:8; Revelation 19:11^
  43. Luke’s context for verses 16-17 is different (vs. 15) than that found in Matthew 3:11-12^
  44. Luke here does not have “εν” (en, i.e. “in”). Matthew 3:11 and Mark 1:8 do. Matthew 3:11 adds “unto repentance” ^
  45. Matthew 3:11 speaks of removing his sandals. Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16; and John 1:27 speak of loosening a strap. Mark 1:7 and Luke 3:16 say a strap of his sandals (plural). John 1:27 has a strap of his sandal (singular). ^
  46. Luke has “the wheat into his barn.” Matthew 3:12 has “his wheat into the barn.” ^
  47. See footnote for Matthew 3:12^
  48. Was John right in rebuking Herod (Proverbs 9:7)? ^
  49. Herod was one wicked man. See Mark 6:14-29 (Matthew 14:3-12). ^
  50. σωματικω (sômatikô) - “in bodily form” - used only one other place, 1 Timothy 4:8 (NKJV “bodily”). A term akin to this term is σωματικως (sômatikôs) and is used one place, Colossians 2:9 (“bodily”). ^
  51. John 8:29 ^
  52. ιαννα (ianna) “Janna” - Critical Text has ιανναι (iannai) “Jannai” (NAS). ^
  53. σεμεει (semeei) “Semei” - Critical Text has σεμειν (semein) “Semein” (NAS). ^
  54. ιωσηφ (iosêph) “Joseph” - Critical Text has ιωσηχ (iosak) “Josech” (NAS). ^
  55. ιουδα (iouda) “Judah” - Critical Text has ιωδα (ioda) “Joda” (NAS). ^
  56. ελμωδαμ (elmôdam) “Elmodam” - Critical Text has ελμαδαμ (elmadam) “Elmadam” (NAS). ^
  57. ιωση (iosê) “Jose” - Critical Text has ιησου (iasou) “Joshua” (NAS, with footnote “Gr., Jesus”). ^
  58. ματθατ (matthat) “Matthat” - Critical Text has μαθθατ (maththat). NAS has “Matthat.” ^
  59. Συμεὼν (Sumeôn) “Sumeon” - NKJV, etc. “Simeon” - see footnote for Luke 2:25^
  60. ιωναν (iônan) “Jonan” - Critical Text has ιωναμ (iovam) “Jonam” (NAS). ^
  61. μαιναν (mainan) “Menan” - Critical Text has μεννα (menna) “Menna” (NAS). ^
  62. From Heli in verse 23 through Mattatha in verse 31, all these men appear to be found only here and nowhere else in Scripture. Although some of the names are identical to other men in Scripture, their fathers identify them as someone else. For example, Eliezer (verse 29) is not the Eliezer in Ezra 10:31 since that Eliezer’s father is Harim (LXX ηραμ, êram, “Harim”) and not Jose (ιωση). The only possible exception to this is Shealtiel and Zerubbabel. This Shealtiel’s father is Neri whereas the Shealtiel in Matthew 1:12 is Jeconiah (see footnotes for Matthew 1:12). Also, the two genealogies found in Luke and in Matthew are completely different until they come together in David. Luke goes through David’s son Nathan, and Matthew through David’s son Solomon. ^
  63. ναθαν (nathan) “Nathan” - Critical Text has ναθαμ (natham). NAS has “Nathan.” ^
  64. ωβηδ (ôbad) “Obed” - Critical Text has ιοβηδ (iobad). NAS has “Obed.” ^
  65. βοοζ (booz) “Boaz” - Critical Text has βοος (boos). NAS has Boaz. ^
  66. σαλα (sala). NAS has “Salmon.” ^
  67. αραμ (aram) “Ram” - Critical Text has αδμιν (admin) “Admin” (NAS). ^
  68. ιωραμ (iôram) “Joram” Majority Text (found also in Matthew 1:8) - Critical Text has αρνι (arni). NAS has “Ram” and footnotes, “Gr., Arni.” Received Text (RT) does not have Joram (ιωραμ) or Arni (αρνι). ^
  69. See Genesis 11:12-13 and the footnote for verse 12^
  70. Mirrored here^

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