Daniel P. Barron

Matthew 5

Friday, May 7, 2021 

1 And seeing the crowds, he went up to the mountain, and when he sat down, his disciples came to him. 2 And he opened his mouth and taught them, saying, 3 "Blessed are the poor in spirit, i for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. ii 4 Blessed are those who mourn, iii for they shall be comforted. 5 Blessed are the gentle, iv for they shall inherit the earth. v 6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. vi 7 Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy. vii 8 Blessed are the pure in heart, viii for they shall see God. ix 9 Blessed are the peacemakers, x for they shall be called sons of God. xi 10 Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. xii 11 Blessed are you when they reproach you and persecute and say every evil word against you falsely because of me. 12 Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in the heavens; for in like manner they persecuted the prophets who were before you."

13 You are the salt xiii of the earth, but if the salt becomes tasteless, how will it become salty? It is good for nothing, except to be thrown outside and trampled xiv by men. 14 You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill is not able to be hidden. 15 Nor do they light a lamp and set it under the basket, but upon a lampstand, and it shines for all those in the house. 16 So let your light shine before men, xv that they may see your good works and glorify your father who is in the heavens.

17 Do not think that I came to abolish the law or the prophets. I did not come to abolish, but to fulfill. xvi 18 For truly I say to you, until the heaven and the earth pass away, one iota xvii or one tittle xviii shall by no means pass away from the law until all comes to pass. xix 19 Therefore, whoever breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches men likewise, he shall be called least in the kingdom of the heavens. xx And whoever does and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of the heavens. xxi 20 For I say to you that unless your righteousness greatly xxii exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will by no means enter the kingdom of the heavens." xxiii

21 "You heard that it was said to the ancients, xxiv 'You shall not murder. And whoever murders is subject xxv to the judgment.' 22 But I say to you that everyone who is vainly xxvi angry with his brother is subject to the judgment. xxvii And whoever says to his brother, 'Raca,' xxviii shall be subject to the council. xxix And whoever says, 'Fool,' xxx is subject to hell xxxi fire. xxxii

23 "Therefore, if you are presenting your gift upon the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, 24 leave your gift there before the altar, and go, first be reconciled with your brother, and then go present your gift." xxxiii

25 "Be xxxiv well-disposed xxxv quickly toward your opponent xxxvi while you are on the way with him, lest the opponent deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, xxxvii and he throw you into prison. 26 Truly, I say to you, you will by no means come out of there until you give up the last quadrans." xxxviii

27 "You heard that it was said, xxxix 'Do not commit adultery.' 28 But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman to desire xl her already committed adultery with her in his heart. xli 29 And if your right eye causes you to stumble, xlii take it out and throw it from you. For it is profitable for you to destroy one of your members and your whole body not be thrown into hell. 30 And if your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off and throw it from you. For it is profitable for you to destroy one of your members and your whole body not be thrown into hell."

31 "And it was said, 'Whoever divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.' xliii 32 But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, except for a reason xliv of sexual immorality, xlv makes her commit adultery. And whoever marries her who is divorced commits adultery."

33 "Again you heard that it was said to the ancients, 'You shall not swear falsely, but shall give to the Lord your oath.' 34 But I say to you, do not swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is God's throne; xlvi 35 nor by the earth, for it is footstool of his feet; xlvii nor unto Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king; 36 nor shall you swear by your head, for you are not able to make one hair white or black. 37 But let your word be, yes yes, xlviii no no. xlix But what is more than these is from the evil one." l

38 "You heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye' and 'a tooth li for a tooth.' 39 But I say to you, do not resist lii the evil one. liii But whoever slaps you upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also. liv 40 And he who wants to judge lv you and take your shirt, give up the garment to him also. lvi 41 Whoever forces you one mile, go with him two. 42 Give to the one who asks you, and the one who wants to borrow from you, do not turn away." lvii

43 "You heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' lviii 44 But I say to you, love your enemies, lix bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you, lx 45 that you may become sons of your father who is in the heavens; for he raises his sun lxi upon evil and good; and rains upon righteous and unrighteous. 46 For if you love those who love you, what reward have you? Do not even tax collectors lxii do the same? 47 And if you greet lxiii your friends lxiv only, what more do you do? Do not even tax collectors do so? 48 Therefore, you shall be perfect just as your father who is in the heavens is perfect." lxv

Matthew 4 - Matthew 6

Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdf. lxvi

  1. Isaiah 57:15; 66:1-2 ^
  2. Psalm 113:4, 6; yet, Matthew 5:16 "in the heavens."? - Psalm 148:4 ^
  3. Ecclesiastes 1:18; 7:2-4 ^
  4. praeiv (praeis) - found also only in Matthew 11:29; 21:5; 1 Peter 3:4. prauthv (prautês) is akin to this and is found only in 1 Corinthians 4:21; 2 Corinthians 10:1; Galatians 5:23; 6:1; Ephesians 4:2; Colossians 3:12; 2 Timothy 2:25; Titus 3:2; 1 Peter 3:15. Of course, there is also a time not to be so gentle (e.g. John 2:15-16; Mark 11: 15-17; 2 Corinthians 10:6; 13:1-2; Titus 1:13). Gentleness takes strength (Proverbs 16:32; 25:28) and understanding (Proverbs 19:11; 14:29).  ^
  5. Psalm 37:9-11, 22, 29, 34 ^
  6. Romans 7:24-25a; 8:23-25; Galatians 5:5; 1 John 3:2-3 (the hope is there because it is hoped for, longed for, and this has a purifying effect) ^
  7. James 2:12-13 ^
  8. Psalm 24:4 describes a pure heart. One who has not lifted up his soul to an idol (e.g. false god, false Christ, covetousness, Colossians 3:5), nor sworn deceitfully. See also Psalm 15:4. ^
  9. 1 John 3:2; Revelation 22:4 ^
  10. Romans 5:1/Proverbs 11:30; 12:20; Romans 12:18; 14:17; Psalm 34:14; 2 Timothy 2:22; Hebrews 12:14; 1 Peter 3:11; 1 Thessalonians 5:13; Ephesians 4:1-3 ^
  11. Philippians 2:14-15 - verse 14 is peaceable. ^
  12. 2 Timothy 3:10-12 (13) ^
  13. Mark 9:50 - preserving; Exodus 30:35 - part of incense; Numbers 18:19/Leviticus 2:13; 2 Chronicles 13:5 - covenant of salt; 2 Kings 2:19-22 - used to cure; Job 6:6 - flavor; Colossians 4:6 - dealing with outsiders; Mark 9:49 - part of hell. ^
  14. katapateisyai (katapateisthai) - found also in Matthew 7:6; Luke 8:5; 12:1; Hebrews 10:29. "Tasteless" (ineffective) - like Revelation 3:15-16, or Hebrews 12:12-13 (they were in danger, Hebrews 12:25). "Good for nothing" - Proverbs 25:26 ^
  15. Not as in Matthew 6:1-2, 5, 16; but as in 1 Thessalonians 2:1-12 (godly living); Ephesians 5:8-13. ^
  16. e.g. Deuteronomy 18:15-19; Isaiah 53; Daniel 9:26 ^
  17. iwta (iôta) - a letter in the Greek alphabet equivilent to "i" in English. ^
  18. keraia (keraia) - "tittle" - a point or small sign used as a diacritical mark in writing or printing, found also in Luke 16:17. ^
  19. genhtai (genêtai) - "comes to pass" or "is." The statement in Romans 10:4 and Hebrews 8:13 refer to the old covenant and its obligation placed upon man (Colossians 2:14), not the existence of the law itself or part(s) of the word of God (Psalm 119:89, 160). ^
  20. This does not reveal great room for error, but rather just the opposite. Someone who teaches one of the least of the commandments of God will be called least in the kingdom. Least is least. There is no lower than least. What will be the fate of someone who teaches against more than one least, or against one or more of the greater commandments? Hell, no doubt (1 Peter 4:17-18). ^
  21. This describes a true man of God (2 John 9), who teaches the law (Romans 15:4; Galatians 5:14; 6:6 - part of the word is the law). ^
  22. pleion (pleion) - "greatly" ^
  23. The scribes and Pharisees are those who had the appearance of righteousness, but had none (Matthew 23:27-28, 32-33). ^
  24. arcaioiv (archaiois) - "ancients" ^
  25. enocov (enochos) - "guilty" - used also in Matthew 5:22; 26:66; Mark 3:29; 14:64; 1 Corinthians 11:27; Hebrews 2:15; James 2:10. The Greek word for danger is kindunov (kindunos) and is found in Romans 8:35; 2 Corinthians 11:26. The verb form is found in Luke 8:23; Acts 19:27, 40; 1 Corinthians 15:30. ^
  26. eikh (eikê) - "vainly" - KJV, NKJV, "without a cause" - Critical Text does not include this word. eikh is found also in Romans 13:4; 1 Corinthians 15:2; Galatians 3:4; 4:11; Colossians 2:18 and translated in these passages by the KJV and NKJV as "vain." Of course, a fool would consider his anger right, even though it isn't (Proverbs 12:15-16).To be angry vainly is wrong (e.g. Ecclesiastes 7:9; Proverbs 12:16; 14:17a, 29; 19:11, 19; 22:24-25; 29:22; Galatians 5:20; James 1:20), but there is godly anger (e.g. Exodus 11:8; 16:20; 32:19; Numbers 16:15; 1 Samuel 20:34; 2 Kings 13:19; Job 32:2-5; Nehemiah 5:1-6; Psalm 4:4/Ephesians 4:26; Psalm 119:53; Mark 3:5; 2 Corinthians 11:29). Also, an interesting verse on anger is found in Psalm 76:10. ^
  27. "the judgment" - same term used in Matthew 12:41-42. Also, note the judgment murderers are subject to - Revelation 21:8. ^
  28. raka (raka) - exact meaning unknown. Aramaic in the Talmud has "Raka" with the idea of "empty one" or "empty head." ^
  29. sunedriw (sunedriô) – "council" (KJV, NKJV); “Sanhedrin” (NIV) - found also in Matthew 10:17 (NIV “councils”); 26:59; Mark 13:9 (NIV “councils”); 14:55; 15:1; Luke 22:66 (NIV “council”); John 11:47; Acts 4:15; 5:21, 27, 34, 41; 6:12, 15; 22:30; 23:1, 6 , 15, 20, 28; 24:20. NIV translates all “Sanhedrin” except those noted above. Of what council would they be in danger? See Matthew 19:28 (Luke 22:30); 1 Corinthians 6:2. ^
  30. mwre (môre) - "fool" from mwrov (môros) the word Christ used in Matthew 23:17, 19 (mwroi, môroi), and found also in Matthew 7:26 (“foolish”); 25:2, 3, 8; 1 Corinthians 1:25, 27; 3:18; 4:10; 2 Timothy 2:23; Titus 3:9..  ^
  31. γέενναν (geennan) “hell” = “valley of Hinnom” see footnote for Joshua 15:8. γέενναν (geennan) “hell” also found in Matthew 5:29-30; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15, 33; Mark 9:43, 45, 47; Luke 12:5; James 3:6. ^
  32. geennan tou purov (geennan tou puros) - more literally, "hell of the fire" ^
  33. i.e. it is very important to pursue peace. Note the warning, Proverbs 18:19 (note also 18:17-18; 21); see also 1 Corinthians 10:32; 2 Corinthians 6:3. ^
  34. isyi (isthi) - "Be" - this same exact form is also found in Matthew 2:13 (NKJV, "stay"); Mark 5:34 (NKJV "be"); Luke 19:17 (NKJV, "have;" NAS "be" in authority); 1 Timothy 4:15 (en toutoiv isyi [en toutois isthi], NKJV "give yourself entirely to them," more literally, "be in them"). isyi is present active imperative from eimi (eimi), the Greek copula. ^
  35. eunown (eunoôn) - "well-disposed" - only found here, but the noun form, eunoia (eunoia), is found in 1 Corinthians 7:3 (NKJV "affection") and Ephesians 6:7 (NKJV "goodwill"). KJV and NKJV translate Matthew 5:25 "agree," NAS "make friends." The Greek word for "agree" is sumfwnew (sumphôneô) and is found in Matthew 18:19; 20:2, 13; Luke 5:36; Acts 5:9; 15:15. Joshua is teaching here one very practical application of Romans 12:18. ^
  36. antidikw (antidikô) - "opponent" (i.e. in law) - found also only in Luke 12:58; 18:3; 1 Peter 5:8. ^
  37. uphreth (upêretê) – "officer” - found also only in Matthew 26:58 (“servants”); Mark 14:54 (“servants”), 65 (“officers); Luke 1:2 (“ministers”); 4:20 (“attendent”); John 7:32, 45-46 (“officers”); 18:3, 12, 18, 22 (“officers”), 36 (“servants”); 19:6 (“officers”); Acts 5:22, 26 (“officers”); 13:5 (“assistant”); 26:16 (“minister”); 1 Corinthians 4:1 (“servants”) NKJV.  ^
  38. kodranthn (kodrantan) - a "quadrans" = two mites (lepta, lepta; Mark 12:42) – NKJV translates this "penny" here but quadrans in Mark 12:42. For Matthew 5:25-26, see also Proverbs 25:8. Joshua is teaching how to pursue peace. ^
  39. Received Text adds, "to the ancients" (as in verse 21). ^
  40. epiyumhsai (epithumêsai) - "to desire" - This verb is used for good desires (Matthew 13:17; Luke 17:22; 22:15; Galatians 5:17; 1 Timothy 3:1; Hebrews 6:11), bad desires (Acts 20:33; Romans 7:7 [“covet”]; 13:9; 1 Corinthians 10:6; Galatians 5:17; James 4:2; 1 Peter 1:12) and neither good or evil, in and of itself (Luke 15:16; 16:21; Revelation 9:6). ^
  41. In other words, the adultery has "already" been committed in the heart before any actual act has taken place, by the desire in the heart. Christ's statement does not teach: 1. A single man who looks at a single woman to desire her = adultery. See Proverbs 18:22 (e.g. Deuteronomy 21:11; Judges 14:1-4). 2. A married man who looks at a single woman to desire her. See Proverbs 18:22 and our report on polygamy. Marriage is not sinful, and to look upon a single woman to desire her is not sinful (given the proper context). But, any single man or married man who looks upon a married woman to desire her, that indeed = adultery, and was forbidden long ago (Exodus 20:17, see footnote for that verse). Simply desiring a married woman is adultery (sin, e.g. Genesis 20:2-7; 2 Samuel 11:2-4a). ^
  42. skandalizei (skandalizei) - "causes you to stumble" - present tense. This word is used for causing to stumble (i.e. sin), e.g. Matthew 13:21 (i.e. fall away), 18:6, 8-9; 26:31, 33; Romans 14:13 ("cause to fall," noun form, skandalon, [skandalon]); 1 John 2:10 (noun); Revelation 2:14; for an offense, e.g. Matthew 11:6; 13:57; 15:12; 16:23 (noun); 17:27; 24:10; Mark 6:3; Luke 17:1-2; John 6:61; Romans 16:17 (noun); Galatians 5:11; and for Joshua who is called the "rock of offense" (noun) in Romans 9:33 and 1 Peter 2:8 ("stumbling" in these two passages is the noun proskommatov [proskommatos]). ^
  43. apostasion (apostasion) - "a certificate of divorce" - found only here and in Matthew 19:7 and Mark 10:4 (biblion
    apostasiou graqai, biblion apostasiou grapsai - "to write a certificate [or "book"] of divorce"). This word is akin to the
    word for apostasy, apostasia (apostasia), found only in Acts 21:21 and 2 Thessalonians 2:3.
  44. logou (logou) - "reason" ^
  45. porneiav (porneias) - "sexual immorality" - a word for general sexual immorality, e.g. used in 1 Corinthians 5:1 (2x); 6:13, 18; 7:2. ^
  46. In Isaiah 66:1 "heaven" is actually plural in the Hebrew. ^
  47. ποδῶν (podôn) - “feet” - ὑποπόδιον (hupopodion) “footstool” is usually with ποδῶν (podôn) “feet” in the NT, see Matthew 22:44; Mark 12:36; Luke 20:43; Acts 2:35; 7:49; Hebrews 1:13; 10:13, with the exception of James “footstool” is without the addition of “feet” in James 2:3. ^
  48. nai nai (nai nai) - "yes yes" ^
  49. ou ou (ou ou) - "no no" ^
  50. See also James 5:12. For bad examples of swearing, see Matthew 23:16-22; 26:72-74. God swears (e.g. Psalm 89:35-36; Isaiah 45:23; 62:8; Jeremiah 22:5; 44:26; 49:13; 51:14; Amos 4:2; 6:8; 8:7; Acts 2:30; Hebrews 3:11; 4:3; 7:21, NT passages have same Greek word for swear). Angels swear (e.g. Daniel 12:7; Revelation 10:6). Men swear (Genesis 31:53; Nehemiah 13:25; Isaiah 65:15-16). Jeremiah 12:16-17 parallels obedience with swearing, and reveals "as the Lord lives" = swearing. "As the Lord lives" is stated many times by God (e.g. Numbers 14:20, 23, 28; Deuteronomy 32:40; Jeremiah 22:24) and men (e.g. 1 Samuel 19:6; 20:3; 28:10; 1 Kings 1:29-30). Note also Hebrews 6:13-18 (Genesis 22:15-16). Finally, only those who swear (the right way) abide with God, Psalm 15:4 (see also 63:11). ^
  51. odonta (odonta) ^
  52. antisthnai (antistênai) - "resist" - found also in Luke 21:15; Acts 6:10 (resist); 13:8 (withstood); Romans 9:19; 13:2 (resist); Galatians 2:11; Ephesians 6:13 (withstood); 2 Timothy 3:8; 4:15; James 4:7; 1 Peter 5:9 (resist). ^
  53. tw ponhrw (to povêrô) - "the evil one" - this is basically the same words as in verse 37, tou ponhrou (tou ponêrou), "the evil one." There is an evil one we are to resist (1 Peter 5:9), and an evil one we are not to resist (Luke 6:29). Yet, we are also to expose (Ephesians 5:11) and rise up against (Psalm 94:16; e.g. Job 29:17). See also Proverbs 22:3; 27:12; Matthew 12:14-15; Luke 4:28-30. ^
  54. e.g. 1 Peter 2:18-3:1, 7; 4:1; James 5:6 (Acts 20:23-24) ^
  55. kriyhnai (krithêvai) - This is the word for "judge" as in Matthew 7:1-2. For this verse, see also 1 Corinthians 6:7; James 2:6; 5:6 and Matthew 5:25. ^
  56. Matthew 5:25-26 ^
  57. Psalm 37:21; Luke 6:35 ^
  58. There is a time and place for hate (e.g. 2 Chronicles 19:1-2; Psalm 15:4; 31:6; 119:113). ^
  59. Exodus 23:4-5; Proverbs 25:21-22 ^
  60. Remember Titus 3:3. ^
  61. Ecclesiastes 8:15; Acts 14:15-17; Job 38:12-13 (e.g. Genesis 19:23-24) ^
  62. τελῶναι (telônai) - “tax collectors” - an obviously hated class of people. See Matthew 18:17. See also Matthew 9:9-11 [Mark 2:16; Luke 7:33-34 “drinking”]; 10:3; 11:19 [Hebrews 7:26]; 21:31-32; Luke 7:29; 18:10; 19:2. ^
  63. There's a time to greet and a time not too (Eccesiastes 3), e.g. 2 Kings 4:29; Matthew 10:12; Luke 10:4; 2 John 10-11. Friends may be greeted (e.g. 3 John 14). ^
  64. filouv (philous) - "friends" - Received Text and Critical Text have adelfouv (adelphous) - "brothers." ^
  65. τέλειοι (teleioi) “be perfect” - The standard is perfection, thus, there is a continual need for mercy (Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 1:7-9). ^
  66. Mirrored here^

16 Responses

  1. Hypocrite! First remove the beam from your eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck from your brother's eye." -- Hypocrites? Is He speaking to believers? Hypocrites go to hell (Matthew 24:51). He clearly is speaking to believers in Matthew 5:11-16 and immediately after this section in Matthew 7:6. Yet, 5:20; 6:23; and 7:24-27 also warns of perishing.

    Therefore, if you, being evil, know to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your father, who is in the heavens, give good things to the ones who ask him? -- Does He only respond to the godly (1 Peter 3:12)? It is true sin hinders (1 Peter 3:7) or stops a response (Psalm 66:18; Isaiah 59:2), and even praying the wrong thing (Jeremiah 7:16). Yet, in His kindness (Matthew 5:45), according to His good pleasure (Psalm 115:3), the Lord even responds to the wicked (e.g. Genesis 4:13-15; Exodus 16:2-15 [later they complain and the Lord kills them, e.g. Numbers 11:1]; 1 Kings 21:27-29).

    "Therefore, everyone who hears these words of mine and does them, I will compare him to a prudent man, who built his house upon the rock. -- "these words" - Matthew 5:3-7:27

  2. And other verses support purgatory:

    • 2 Maccabees 12:43-45
    • 1 Corinthians 3:11-15
    • Matthew 5:25-26
    • Luke 12:42-48
    • Matthew 12:32
  3. Was the law abolished?

    For those who believe in Christ, the law is not over them.

  4. How would you translate the word "logos" in these verses? Matthew 5:37, Matthew 10:14, Matthew 12:32, and Matthew 18:23?

    Feel free to look for yourself.

  5. And Joshua summoning a child, stood him in their midst, and said, "Truly I say to you, unless you turn and become as the child, you will by no means enter into the kingdom of the heavens. -- strafhte (straphête) - "turn" - used for turn position or direction (e.g. Matthew 5:39; 7:6; 9:22), turn in the sense of physical "change" (e.g. Revelation 11:6) or spiritual change (e.g. John 12:40). Used of God turning in Acts 7:42.

    But if he refuses to hear them, tell the assembly. But if he refuses to hear even the assembly, let him be to you as the heathen and the tax collector. -- eynikov (ethnikos) - "heathen" - found also only in Matthew 5:47 (CT); 6:7; 3 John 7

  6. They say to him, "Why then did Moses command to give a certificate of divorce and to send her away?" -- "certificate of divorce," biblion apostasiou (biblion apostasio) - See also Jeremiah 3:8 and footnote for Matthew 5:31.

    "send . . . away," apolusai (apolusai) is the same exact word for "divorce" in verse 3, apolusai (apolusai). When used for divorce, it is only found here and in Matthew 1:19; 5:31; 19:3; Mark 10:2, 4, 11-12; Luke 16:18.

    But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, not because of immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her who is divorced commits adultery." -- Matthew 5:32b; Luke 16:18b

  7. And when that king heard, he was angry, and sending his armies, he destroyed those murderers and burned their city.” -- wrgisyh (ôrgisthê) - “angry” - same word as used e.g. in Matthew 5:22; 18:34; Luke 14:21; 15:28; Ephesians 4:26; Revelation 11:18; 12:17.

  8. And immediately going to Joshua he said, “Rejoice rabbi!” and kissed him. -- caire (chaire) singular imperative - “rejoice” - KJV, NAS “Hail;” NKJV “Greetings.” This same exact word, caire (chaire), is found in Matthew 27:29; Mark 15:18; John 19:3 (“Hail”); Luke 1:28 (“Rejoice”). Same imperative verb but plural form (cairete [chairete]) is found in Matthew 5:12; 28:9; Philippians 3:1; 4:4; 1 Thessalonians 5:16; 1 Peter 4:13 (“rejoice”). The noun for “greeting” is aspasmov (aspasmos, e.g. Matthew 23:7; Luke 1:29, 41, 44; Colossians 4:18). The verb “greet” is aspasomai (aspasomai, e.g. Matthew 5:47; 10:12; Mark 9:15; Romans 16:3, 5-16, 21-23).

    And Peter followed him from a distance until the courtyard of the chief priest. And entering inside he sat with the officers to see the end. -- uphretwn (upêretôn) – “officers” NAS - KJV, NKJV “servants” - see footnote for Matthew 5:25. John 18:18 reveals both douloi (douloi) “slaves” and uphretai (upêretai) “officers” were there by the fire.

    Then they spit into his face and beat him, and they slapped, saying, “Prophesy to us, Christ! Who is the one who hit you?” -- errapisan (errapisan) - “slapped” - KJV “smote him with the palms of their hands;” NKJV “struck Him with the palms of their hands;” NAS “slapped Him” - this verb is only also found in Matthew 5:39 (“slaps”). The related noun, rapisma (rapisma) “slap,” is only found in Mark 14:65; John 18:22; 19:3.

  9. The one who says not to commit adultery, do you commit adultery? The one who abhors idols, do you rob temples? -- The answer is yes. (Matthew 5:27-28; Romans 7:7f) Except, for a believer there is repentance in faith. (Romans 7:14-25)

  10. What then shall we say? The law is sin? May it not be! But, I did not know the sin, except through law. For I also had not known the desire, except the law was saying, “You shall not desire.” -- ἐπιθυμίαν (epithumian) “desire”; NKJV “covetousness”; CEB “desire for what others have” - see Exodus 20:17 and footnote, and verb form of this noun in Matthew 5:28.

  11. So that, the one opposing the authority resists the ordinance of the God, and those who resist will receive judgment upon themselves. -- Even if the authority is being unjust, He still requires we do not oppose/resist (Matthew 5:39//Luke 6:29-30; James 5:6). See also Lamentations 3:27-41 (vs 33 is more literally, “for he does not afflict from his heart” e.g. Jeremiah 9:1-3).

  12. Again the Devil takes him to a very high mountain and shows him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory. -- κοσμου (kosmou) - “world” - this is the more common word for “world.” It is found about 187 times in the NT (e.g. Matthew 5:14; 13:35, 38; 16:26; 18:7; 1 John 2:2, 15-16; 5:4-5, 19; etc.). See also Luke 2:1 and footnote for the “inhabited world.”

    And when Joshua heard that John had been delivered up, he departed to Galilee. -- παρεδοθη (paredothê) - “delivered up” (NAS footnotes “Lit. delivered up”) - from παραδιδωμι (paradidômi) - “to hand over,” “deliver” (e.g. Matthew 5:25; 10:17, 19, 21; 11:27; 18:34; 20:19; Romans 1:24, 26, 28; 4:25) also translated “betray” (e.g. Matthew 10:4; 17:22; 20:18). NKJV & NIV translate “had been put in prison,” KJV “was cast into prison,” NAS “had been taken into custody.” The Greek word for “prison” is not in this text as it is in Acts 8:3 (παρεδιδου εις φυλακην [paredidou eis phulakên]) and 22:4 (παραδιδους εις φυλακας [paradidou eis phulakas]) where the Greek words for both “delivered” and “prison” are found.

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