Daniel P. Barron

2 Samuel 23

Sunday, November 21, 2021 

1 And these are the last words of David. The utterance of David, son of Jesse, and the utterance of the man raised up. The anointed of the Gods of Jacob, and the pleasant songs i of Israel. 2 “Yehvah's spirit spoke in me, and his speech was on my tongue. 3 Gods of Israel, Rock of Israel, said to me, 'He who rules among men should be righteous, ruling in fear of Gods. 4 And as light in morning, a Sun rising, a morning without clouds, from brightness, from rain, grass from earth.' 5 Though my house is not so with God, ii yet an everlasting covenant he set for me, ordered and secured in all, for all my salvation and all delight, though he will not cause to grow. iii 6 And Belial iv as a thornbush is chased away, all of them, because they take v not in hand. 7 A man who touches them should be filled with iron and a wood spear. And they shall surely be burned in the fire vi in the dwelling place.”


8 These are the names of the mighty men who were to David: JoshebBasshebeth vii a Tachmonite, viii head of the captains. ix He was Adino x the Ezno xi because of eight hundred slain at one time. 9 And after him was Eleazar, son of Dodi, xii son of an Ahohite, xiii among three mighty men with David when they defied the Philistines who were gathered there for the battle and Israel's men went away. 10 He arose and struck among the Philistines until his hand was weary and his hand stuck to the sword, and Yehvah worked great salvation on that day. And the people returned after him only to plunder.


11 And after him was Shamma, xiv son of Agee xv the Hararite. xvi And Philistines were gathered to the company, and there was a portion of the field filled with lentils. And the people fled from before Philistines. 12 And he stationed himself in the midst of that portion and delivered her and struck Philistines. And Yehvah worked a great salvation.


13 And three xvii from the thirty heads went down and came down at harvest to David to a cave of Adullam, xviii and a company of Philistines were camped in Rephaim xix valley. 14 And David was then in the stronghold and the Philistines' garrison was House of Bread. 15 And David desired and said, “Who will give me a drink of water from a well of House of Bread which is by the gate?” 16 And the three mighty men broke through Philistines' camp and drew water from House of Bread's well which was by the gate. And they carried and brought to David. And he was unwilling to drink it, xx and poured it out to Yehvah. 17 And he said, “Far be it for me, Yehvah, from me doing this, the blood of the men who went with their souls.” xxi And he was unwilling to drink it. These things the three mighty men did.


18 And Abishai, Joab's brother, son of Zeruiah, he was head of the third. xxii And he lifted his spear upon three hundred slain, and to him was a name among the three. 19 From the three, was he surely honored most? And he was to them for a leader, and unto the three he did not come. xxiii


20 And Benaiah, son of Jehoiada, son of a lively xxiv man of many deeds from Kabzeel, he struck two lions of God xxv of Moab. And he went down and struck the lion in the midst of the pit on the day of the snow. 21 And he struck an Egyptian man who xxvi was a sight! And in the hand of the Egyptian was a spear. And he went down to him with the rod and wrestled the spear from the hand of the Egyptian and killed him with his spear. 22 These things Benaiah, son of Jehoiada, did, and to him was a name among the three mighty men. 23 From the thirty he was more honored, and to the three he did not come. And David put him to his guard.


24 Asahel, Joab's brother, was among the thirty, Elhanan, son of Dodo, of House of Bread, 25 Shammah the Harodite, xxvii Elika xxviii the Harodite, 26 Helez xxix the Paltite, xxx Ira, son of Perverse, xxxi the Tekoite, xxxii 27 Abiezer the Anathothite, xxxiii Mebunnai xxxiv the Hushathite, 28 Zalmon the Ahohite, Maharai xxxv the Netophathite, xxxvi 29 Fat, xxxvii son of Baanah the Netophathite, Ittai son of Ribai xxxviii from Hill xxxix of sons of Benjamin, 30 Benaiah a Pirathonite, Hiddai xl from brooks of Gaash, 31 AbiAlbon xli the Plainite, xlii Azmaveth xliii the Barhumite, xliv 32 Eliahba xlv the Shaalbonite xlvi of sons of Jashen, xlvii Jonathan, 33 Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam, xlviii son of Sharar xlix the Hararite, 34 Eliphelet, son of Ahasbai, l the son of the Maachathite, Eliam, son of Ahithophel the Gilonite, 35 Hezro li the Carmelite, Paarai lii the Arbite, liii 36 Igal, son of Nathan from Zobah, Bani liv the Gadite, 37 Zelek lv the Ammonite, Naharai lvi the Beerothite, carriers lvii of the equipment of Joab, son of Zeruiah, 38 Ira the Ithrite, lviii Gareb lix the Ithrite, 39 Uriah the Hittite, all thirty seven.


2 Samuel 22 - 2 Samuel 24


Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdf.

  1. זְמִרוֹת (zemirot) “songs” YLT (plural); “psalmist” NKJV – “Psalm” is of the same root, מִזְמוֹר (mizmor) e.g. Ps. 3. ^
  2. Psalm 12:1; Proverbs 20:6 ^
  3. כּי־לאֹ יַצְמִיַח (kiy-lo' yatsmiyach) “though he will not cause to grow”; YLT “He hath not caused it to spring up”; KJV “although he make it not to grow”; NKJV “Will He not make it increase?” - meaning uncertain ^
  4. בְלִיַּעַל (beliyya`al) “Belial” (see footnote for Deuteronomy 13:13) – a reference to Satan to which all the ungodly are subject. (Acts 26:18; Ephesians 2:2; Revelation 12:9) ^
  5. יִקָּחוּ (yiqqâchu) “they take” (active verb); NKJV, etc. “be taken” (passive); NLT “they tear” (active) – typically translated as a passive, but it is not passive but active. ^
  6. i.e. hell – Psalm 11:6; 21:8-9; Isaiah 33:12; 66:24. ^
  7. יֹשֵׁב בַּשֶּׁבֶת (yoshêv bashevet) “Josheb-Basshebeth” (= “sitting in the seat” YLT) NKJV, NAS; “that sat in the seat” KJV - only here – see also 1 Chronicles 11:11. ^
  8. תַּחְכְּמֹנִי (tachkemoniy) “Tachmonite” - only here – see also 1 Chronicles 11:11. ^
  9. שָּׁלִשִׁי (shâlishiy) “captains” NKJV, etc.; “three” Green, etc.; BDB “best explained as third man (in chariot)” - Used variously for “captains” or “officers” (e.g. Exodus 14:7; 15:4; 2 Kings 7:2, 17, 19; etc.); “musical instruments” (e.g. 1 Samuel 18:6); a “third” (YLT) “measure.” (NKJV e.g. Psalm 80:6) See also 1 Chronicles 11:11. ^
  10. עֲדִינוֹ ('adiyno) “Adino” (meaning unknown) - only here – see also 1 Chronicles 11:11. ^
  11. Written עֶצְנוֹ (etsno) “Ezno” (meaning unknown) - only here; read עֶצְנִי (etsniy) “Eznite” - only here. ^
  12. Written דֹּדִי (dodiy) “Dodi” = either “my beloved” or “my uncle,” see footnote for Judges 10:1; read דֹּדוֹ. (dodo) ^
  13. אֲחֹחִי ('achochiy) “Ahohite” - found also in 2 Samuel 23:28; 1 Chronicles 11:12; 29; 27:4. ^
  14. שַׁמָּא (shammâ') “Shamma” LEB; “Shammah” NKJV, yet this same exact name is also in 1 Chronicles 7:37 “Shamma,” (NKJV) and there is also “Shammah” שַׁמָּה (shammâh) e.g. in 1 Samuel 17:13. ^
  15. אָגֵא ('âgê') “Agee” - only here. ^
  16. הָרָרִי (hârâriy) “Hararite” - found also in 2 Samuel 23:33; 1 Chronicles 11:34-35. ^
  17. Written שְׁלֹשִׁים (sheloshiym) "thirty"; read שְׁלֹשָׁה (sheloshâh) "three" ^
  18. See 1 Samuel 22:1. ^
  19. רְפָאִים (rephâ'iym) “Rephaim” - see footnote for Genesis 14:5. ^
  20. Water being plural in Hebrew, this “it” and the second “it” are both plural. (i.e. “them”) ^
  21. In other words, they risked their lives. ^
  22. Written שְׁלשִׁי (sheloshiy) “third”; read שְּׁלֹשָׁה (sheloshâh) “three” - a “third” is used for a company of soldiers in e.g. 2 Samuel 18:2 where Abishai is over a third of the army. ^
  23. In other words, there was another three. ^
  24. Written חַי (chay) “lively”; read חַיִל (chayil) “valiant” ^
  25. אֲרִאֵל ('ari'êl) “lions of God” EHV; “lion like men” YLT; “lion-like heroes” NKJV; “sons of Ariel” NAS – used in this same way in 1 Chronicles 11:22, אֲרִיאֵל. (ariy'êl) This is also a name for Jerusalem (Lion of God/Ariel) in Isaiah 29:1-2, 7, and also a man's name in Ezra 8:16. This can also be translated “Lion of power,” since “God” is used in that sense; see footnote for Genesis 31:29. ^
  26. Written אֲשֶׁר ('asher) “who”; read אִישׁ ('iysh) “man” (i.e. a man of appearance) ^
  27. חֲרֹדִי (charodiy) “Harodite” - only in this verse. ^
  28. אֱלִיקָא ('eliyqâ) "Elika" - only here. ^
  29. חֶלֶץ (chelets) “Helez” - found also in 1 Chronicles 2:39; 11:27; 27:10. ^
  30. פַּלְטִי (paltiy) "Paltite" - only here. ^
  31. עִקִּשׁ(`iqqêsh) “Perverse” (e.g. Deuteronomy 32:5 “perverse” NKJV); “Ikkesh” NKJV – for this man also found in 1 Chronicles 11:28; 27:9. ^
  32. = someone from Tekoa, e.g. 2 Samuel 14:4. ^
  33. עַנְּתֹתִי (`annetotiy) “Anathothite” - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:28; 12:3; 27:12; Jeremiah 29:27. An Anathothite is someone from Anathoth. (Joshua 21:18) ^
  34. מְבֻנַּי (mevunnay) “Mebunnai” - only here. ^
  35. מַהְרַי (mahray) “Maharai” - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:30; 27:13. ^
  36. נְּטֹפָתִי (netophâtiy) “Netophathite” - found also in 2 Samuel 23:29; 2 Kings 25:23; 1 Chronicles 2:54; 9:16; 11:30; 27:13, 15; Nehemiah 12:28; Jeremiah 40:8. A Netophathite is someone from “Netophah,” (Ezra 2:22) which was near Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 12:28-29) ^
  37. חֵלֶב (chêlev) “Fat” (= “fat” e.g. 2 Samuel 1:22) – only here. In 1 Chronicles 11:30 his name is “Heled” חֵלֶד. (chêled) ^
  38. רִיבַי (riyvay) “Ribai” - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:31. ^
  39. גִּבְעַת (giv`at) “Hill”; NKJV, etc. “Gibeah” - see footnote for Joshua 15:57. ^
  40. הִדַּי (hidday) “Hiddai” - only here. ^
  41. אֲבִי־עַלְבוֹן ('aviy-`alvon) “Abi-Albon” (= “My father-?) - only here. ^
  42. עַרְבָתִי (`arvâtiy) “Plainite” (i.e. from “Plain” see Joshua 18:18); NKJV, etc. “Arabah” ^
  43. עַזְמָוֶת (`azmâvet) “Azmaveth” - found also in 1 Chronicles 8:36; 9:42; 11:33; 12:3; 27:25; Ezra 2:24, and a location near Jerusalem in Nehemiah 12:29, and “House of Azmaveth” in Nehemiah 7:28. ^
  44. בַּרְחֻמִי (barchumiy) "Barhumite" - only here. ^
  45. אֶלְיַחְבָּא ('elyachbbâ') “Eliahba” (= God hides) - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:33. ^
  46. שַּׁעַלְבֹנִי (sha`alvniy) “Shaalbonite” - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:33. ^
  47. יָשֵׁן (yâshên) “Jashen” (= “he sleeps” or “sleepy” or “sleeper”) - only here for a name. ^
  48. אֲחִיאָם ('chiy'âm) “Ahiam” - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:35. ^
  49. שָׁרָר (shârâr) "Sharar" - only here. ^
  50. אֲחַסְבַּי ('achasbay) "Ahasbai" - only here. ^
  51. Written חֶצְרוֹ (chetsro) “Hezro” - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:37; read חֶצְרַי (chetsray) “Hezrai” LXX Ασαραι (Asarai) - only here. ^
  52. פַּעֲרַי (pa`aray) “Paarai” - only here. ^
  53. אַרְבִּי ('arbiy) “Arbite” - only here. Arbite = someone from “Arab” אֲרַב, ('arav) Joshua 15:52. ^
  54. בָּנִי (bâniy) “Bani” - found also in 1 Chronicles 6:46[H31]; 9:4; Ezra 2:10; 10:29, 34, 38; Nehemiah 3:17; 8:7; 9:4-5; 10:13-14[H14-15]; 11:22. ^
  55. צֶלֶק (tseleq) “Zelek” - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:39. ^
  56. נַחְרַי (nachray) “Naharai” - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:39. ^
  57. Written נֹשְׂאֵי (nos'êy) “carriers”; read נֹשֵׂא (nosê') “carrier” ^
  58. יִּתְרִי (yitriy) “Ithrite” - found also in 1 Chronicles 2:53; 11:40. ^
  59. גָּרֵב (gârêv) “Gareb” - found also in 1 Chronicles 11:40; Jeremiah 31:39. ^

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