Daniel P. Barron

1 Samuel 18

Thursday, April 8, 2021 

1 And it was, as his finishing to speak to Saul, so Jonathan's soul was bound with David's soul, and Jonathan loved him as his soul. i 2 And Saul took him on that day, and did not let him return to his father's house. 3 And in his love with him as his soul, Jonathan and David cut a covenant. 4 And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him and gave it to David, and his garments, ii and unto his sword, and unto his bow and unto his belt.

5 And David went out in all that Saul sent him acting prudently. And Saul set him over the men of war, and he did good in the eyes of all the people and also in the eyes of Saul's servants. 6 And in was, in their coming in, in David's return from striking the Philistine, the women went out from all of Israel's cities to sing and dance to meet Saul the king with tambourines, with joy, and with musical instruments. 7 And the women who were celebrating iii sang and said, “Saul has struck his thousands iv and David his tens of thousands.” v 8 And Saul was very angry, and this thing was bad in his eyes. And he said, “They give to David tens of thousands and to me they give the thousands. And yet to him is only the kingship.” 9 And Saul was guilty vi with David from that day and onward.

10 And it was on the next day, so a bad spirit of Gods rushed to Saul and he prophesied in the midst of the house, and David played with his hand as on other days. vii And the spear was in Saul's hand. 11 And Saul cast the spear and said, “I will strike in David and in the wall.” And David turned around from before him twice. 12 And Saul was afraid of David, for Yehvah was with him and had turned aside from with Saul. 13 And Saul took him away from with him and put him leader of a thousand. And he went out and came in before the people. 14 And David was prudent in all his ways, and Yehvah was with him. 15 And Saul saw that he was very prudent, and he dreaded viii him. 16 And all Israel and Judah loved David, for he was going out and coming in before them.

17 And Saul said to David, “Look, my oldest daughter, Merab, I will give her to you for a woman, ix only be for me for a son of valor and fight Yehvah's battles.” And Saul said, “My hand shall not be against him. So, Philistines' hand will be against him.” 18 And David said to Saul, “Who am I and what is my life from my father's family in Israel that I should be son-in-law to the king?” 19 And it was, when it was time to give Merab, Saul's daughter, to David, so she was given to Adriel x the Meholathite xi for a woman.

20 And Michal, Saul's daughter, loved David, and they told Saul; and the thing was right xii in his eyes. 21 And Saul said, “I will give her to him, and she shall be to him for a snare, and Philistines' hand shall be against him.” And Saul said to David a second time, “Be a son-in-law to me today.”

22 And Saul commanded his servants, “Speak to David in secret, saying, 'Look, the king delights in you and all his servants love you, so now, be a son-in-law to the king.'” 23 And Saul's servants spoke these words in David's ears. And David said, “Is it a slight thing in your eyes to be son-in-law to the king? And I am a poor man and lightly esteemed.” 24 And Saul's servants told him, saying, “According to these words David spoke.” 25 And Saul said, “Thus you shall say to David, 'There is no delight in a dowry to the king, except in a hundred Philistines' foreskins to take vengeance on the king's enemies.” And Saul thought to cause David to fall by Philistines' hand. 26 And his servants told David these words, and the thing was right in David's eyes to be son-in-law to the king; and the days were not fulfilled.

27 And David arose and went, he and his men, and struck in the Philistines two hundred men. And David brought their foreskins and fulfilled them to the king to be son-in-law to the king. And Saul gave to him Michal his daughter for a woman.

28 And Saul saw and knew that Yehvah was with David. And Michal, Saul's daughter, loved him. 29 And Saul was yet more afraid of David, and Saul was an enemy of David all the days. 30 And the Philistines' leaders went out, and it was, as often as their going out, David acted more prudently than all Saul's servants. And his name was very highly esteemed.

1 Samuel 17 - 1 Samuel 19

Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdf.

  1. Proverbs 19:8 (“loves his soul”), more literally, “he who buys heart loves his soul.” ^
  2. ו די מד) maddâyv) “his garments” - see footnote for 1 Samuel 17:38. ^
  3. ת חק שד מש) mesachaqot) “celebrating” GW, NOG; “playing” YLT; “danced” NKJV – used in similar context in 2 Samuel 6:5 (“celebrating” NAS), 21 (“celebrate” NAS); 1 Chronicles 13:8 (“celebrating” NAS).  ^
  4. Written ו פי לי אק') alâphâv) “his thousands”; read יו פי לי אק') alâphâyv) “his thousands” ^
  5. ייוָבבשבְר) rivvotâyv) “his tens of thousands” (plural); NKJV, KJV, NAS “his ten thousands”; YLT “myriads” - see footnote for Genesis 24:60.  ^
  6. Written ון עי`) âon) “guilty”; read עויןן`) oyên) “eyed” NKJV – verb only found here. ^
  7. ום בש יום׀ כש) keyom beyom) “as at other times” - more literally, “as day in day” ^
  8. ר ייגי) yâgâr) “dreaded” NAS; “was afraid of” NKJV, KJV – same word as e.g. in Numbers 22:3 “dread” NKJV. ^
  9. David was already suppose to receive one of Saul's daughters (1 Samuel 17:25). ^
  10. ל יאן בְר דש עד`) adriy'êl) “Adriel” (= “God is my help”) - found also in 2 Samuel 21:8, where Adriel is noted as having 5 sons (NAS “born to Adriel” ה די יילש ( via Michal , Saul's daughter, David's wife! So, Michal was given to David in 1 Samuel 18:27, and later given to Palti in 1 Samuel 25:44; then given back to David in 2 Samuel 3:13. At some point, by 2 Samuel 21:8, she had committed adultery at least 5 times with Adriel! 2 Samuel 6:23 says, “for Michal . . . there was not to her a child unto the day of her death.” Context dictates via David.  ^
  11. י בְת תליָח מש) mecholâtiy) “Meholathite” - found also in 2 Samuel 21:8. ^
  12. ר בשדְי) yishar) “right” YLT; “pleased” NKJV; “agreeable to” NAS ^

5 Responses

  1. And David went to Nob to Ahimelech the priest. And Ahimelech trembled to meet David and said to him, “Why are you by yourself and no men are with you?” -- ש אי') iysh) “men” LEB; “man” YLT, KJV; “one” NKJV, NAS – this is more literally “man” (singular), but this same exact word is used to mean “men” often (e.g. 1 Samuel 17:24 “men” of Israel, ל אל רא יישר יש אי'] iysh yisrâ'êl]). And context dictates this is plural in meaning, since David was a captain (1 Samuel 18:13) and commonly coming and going with an army (1 Samuel 18:16). And, there were also some “young men,” ים רי נרעא) ne`âriym), here with David (vs. 4-5). So, context (greater and immediate) does not dictate he was absolutely by himself, but abnormally “alone” (i.e. no army).

  2. And Michal, Saul's daughter, had no child unto the day of her death. -- See footnote for Adriel in 1 Samuel 18:19. See also 2 Samuel 21:8 and footnote.

  3. And the king took two sons of Rizpah, daughter of Ajah, whom she bore to Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth, and five sons of Michal, daughter of Saul, whom she bore to Adriel, son of Barzillai the Meholathite. -- Qal יָלְדָה (yâleâh) "bore" Green, CJB, DRA, ESV, OJB, RSV, TLV, WEB; "born" NAS, MEV, NET, NLV; "borne" CSB, DARBY, GNT, ISV, LEB NIV; "brought up" KJV, NKJV, BRG -- same exact word where Rizpah "bore" (NKJV) to Saul in this same verse. In a different form, the Piel form, this verb is used for a "midwife," i.e. help give birth, e.g. Genesis 35:17; Exodus 1:15-21. See also footnote for Genesis 50:23. Bringing up children is worded differently, e.g. in Isaiah 1:2 "nourished and brought up" (NKJV) גִּדַּלְתִּי וְרוֹמַמְתִּי (giddaltiy veromamtiy); 51:18 "brought up" (NKJV) גִּדֵּלָה (giddêlâh); Job 31:18 "reared" (NKJV) גְּדֵלַנִי (gedêlaniy); 2 Kings 10:1, 5 "reared" אֹמְנִים ('omniym), same root verb for the participle "a nurse" in Ruth 4:16 אֹמֶנֶת ('omenet). See also footnote for 1 Samuel 18:19 for Adriel.

  4. These are the names of the mighty men who were to David: JoshebBasshebeth a Tachmonite, head of the captains. He was Adino the Ezno because of eight hundred slain at one time. -- שָּׁלִשִׁי (shâlishiy) “captains” NKJV, etc.; “three” Green, etc.; BDB “best explained as third man (in chariot)” - Used variously for “captains” or “officers” (e.g. Exodus 14:7; 15:4; 2 Kings 7:2, 17, 19; etc.); “musical instruments” (e.g. 1 Samuel 18:6); a “third” (YLT) “measure.” (NKJV e.g. Psalm 80:6) See also 1 Chronicles 11:11.

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