Daniel P. Barron

1 Samuel 17

Thursday, March 25, 2021 

1 And Philistines gathered their camps for war and gathered at Socoh which was Judah's. And they camped between Socoh and Azekah in Ephes Dammim. i 2 And Saul and Israel's men gathered and camped in the Valley of the Terebinth ii and set in order for battle to meet Philistines. 3 And Philistines were standing toward the mountain iii on this side, and Israel was standing toward the mountain on this side. The valley was between them.

4 And a man of the duelists iv went out from Philistines' camps. Goliath was his name, v from Winepress. His height was six cubits and a span. vi 5 And a helmet of bronze was upon his head, and he was wearing armor vii of scales. viii And the weight of the armor was five thousand shekels of bronze. ix 6 And a greave x of bronze was upon his feet xi and a javelin of bronze between his shoulders. 7 And his wood spear was like a weavers' beam, and his spear's blade was six hundred shekels of iron. And the bearer of the shield went before him.

8 And he stood and called to the battle lines of Israel and said to them, “Why have you come out to set in order for battle? Am I not the Philistine and you servants to Saul? Eat xii for yourselves a man, and let him come down to me. 9 If he is able to wage war with me and strike me, so we will be for you for servants. And if I am able to him, and strike him, so you will be for us for servants and serve us.” 10 And the Philistine said, “I reproach the battle lines of Israel this day. Give to me a man, and we will fight together.” 11 And Saul and all Israel heard these words of the Philistine, and they were dismayed and feared greatly.

12 And David, son of this Ephraimite xiii man from House of Bread, Judah, and his name was Jesse, and he had eight sons. And the man in the days of Saul was old coming in among men. xiv 13 And the three oldest xv of Jesse's sons went going after Saul to battle, and the name of the three of his sons who went in the battle: Eliab the firstborn, and his second Abinadab, and his third Shammah. 14 And David was the youngest, and the three oldest went after Saul.

15 And David was going and returning from with Saul to tend his father's flock at House of Bread. 16 And the Philistine drew near, the early morning and the evening, and stationed himself forty days. 17 And Jesse said to David his son, “Please take to your brothers an ephah of this roasted grain and these ten loaves and run to the camp to your brothers. 18 And these ten cuts of the cheese xvi bring to the leader of the thousand. And visit your brothers for peace xvii and take their pledge.” xviii

19 And Saul and they and all Israel's men were in the Valley of the Terebinth fighting with Philistines. 20 And David rose early in the morning and left the flock to a keeper and carried and went just as Jesse commanded him. And he came in to the trench, xix and the army was going out to the battle line; and they shouted in the battle. 21 And Israel set in order and Philistines, battle line to meet battle line.

22 And David left the supplies from upon him over to the hand of the keeper of the supplies and ran to the battle line. And he came in and asked to his brother for peace. xx 23 And he was speaking with them. And behold, the man of the duelists xxi was coming up, Goliath the Philistine was his name from Winepress from caves xxii of Philistines. And he spoke according to these words and David heard. 24 And when all Israel's men saw the man, so they fled from before him and were very afraid.

25 And Israel's men said, “Have you seen xxiii this man coming up? For he comes up to reproach Israel. And it shall be, the man who strikes him, the king shall make him rich, great riches, and he will give his daughter to him. And his father's house he will make free in Israel.” 26 And David said to the men standing with him, saying, “What shall be done for the man who strikes this Philistine and takes away reproach from upon Israel? For who is this foreskinned Philistine that reproaches battle lines of living Gods?” xxiv 27 And the people said to him according to this word, saying, “Thus shall be done to the man who strikes him.”

28 And his older brother, Eliab, heard his words to the men, and Eliab's anger burned against David. And he said, “Why is this? You have come down, and with who did you leave those few of the flock in the wilderness? I know your insolence and your bad heart. For you came down in order to see the battle.” xxv 29 And David said, “What have I done now? Was it not a word?” xxvi 30 And he turned from beside him to another in front and spoke according to this word. And the people returned him a word as the first word. 31 And the words that David spoke were heard and told before Saul, and he took him.

32 And David said to Saul, “Let no man's heart fall over him. Your servant will go and fight with this Philistine.” 33 And Saul said to David, “You are not able to go to this Philistine to fight with him, for you are a youth; and he is a man of war from his youth.” 34 And David said to Saul, “Your servant was tending among his father's flock and the lion came, and the bear, and carried a sheep from the herd. 35 And I went out after him and struck him and snatched from his mouth. And he arose over me, and I grabbed him in his beard and struck him and killed him. 36 Both the lion and the bear your servant has stricken, and this foreskinned Philistine will be as one of them. For he has reproached battle lines of living Gods.” xxvii 37 And David said, “Yehvah, who has delivered me from the hand of the lion and from the hand of the bear, he will deliver me from the hand of this Philistine.” And Saul said to David, “Go, and Yehvah be with you.” xxviii

38 And Saul clothed David with his garments xxix and put a bronze helmet upon his head and clothed him with armor. 39 And David girded his sword upon his garments xxx and tried to walk, for he had not tested. And David said to Saul, “I am not able to walk in these, for I have not tested.” And David took them off from upon him.

40 And he took his staff in his hand and choose for himself five smooth stones from the brook and put them in the shepherds' xxxi container xxxii that he had and in the pouch, xxxiii and his sling in his hand, and he drew near to the Philistine. 41 And the Philistine walked, coming and approaching to David, and the man carrying the shield was before him. 42 And the Philistine looked and saw David and despised him, for he was a youth, red with beautiful appearance.

43 And the Philistine said to David, “Am I a dog that you come to me with the staff?” And the Philistine cursed David in his gods. 44 And the Philistine said to David, “Come to me and I will give your flesh to the birds of the heavens and to the beasts of the field.” 45 And David said to the Philistine, “You come to me in a sword and in a spear and in a javilin. And I come to you in Yehvah of hosts name, Gods of battle lines of Israel, whom you have reproached. 46 This day Yehvah will deliver you into my hand and will strike you and take away your head from upon you and give a corpse of Philistines' camp to the birds of the heavens and to the life of the earth. And all the earth shall know that there are Gods to Israel. 47 And this whole assembly will know that not in a sword nor in a spear does Yehvah save, for the battle is Yehvah's; and he will give you into our hand.” xxxiv

48 And it was, that the Philistine arose and went and approached to meet David, and David hurried and ran to the battle line to meet the Philistine. 49 And David sent his hand to the container and took from there a stone and slung and struck the Philistine at his forehead, and the stone sank into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to earth. 50 So David was stronger xxxv than the Philistine in the sling and in the stone and struck the Philistine and killed him. And there was no sword in David's hand.

51 And David ran and stood at the Philistine and took his sword and drew her out from her sheath and killed him and cut off his head with her. And the Philistines saw that their mighty one was dead and fled. 52 And men of Israel and Judah arose and shouted and pursued the Philistines unto your going to a valley and unto gates of Ekron. And slain Philistines fell on Two Gates xxxvi way and unto Winepress and unto Ekron. 53 And sons of Israel returned from chasing after Philistines and plundered their camps.

54 And David took the Philistine's head and brought him to Jerusalem, and his gear he put in his tent. 55 And when Saul saw David going out to meet the Philistine, he said to Abner, the leader of the army, “Whose son is this young man, Abner?” And Abner said, “Your soul lives, the king, if I know.” 56 And the king said. “You, ask, whose son is this young man.” 57 And when David returned from striking the Philistine, so Abner took him and brought him before Saul; and the Philistine's head was in his hand. 58 And Saul said to him, “Whose son are you, young man?” And David said, “Son of your servant Jesse, the Bethlehemite.”

1 Samuel 16 - 1 Samuel 18

Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdfs here and here.

  1. ים מי דמ ס פס אס') ephes dammiym) “Ephes Dammim” - only here. ^
  2. ה לה אל הה ק מס על`) êmeq hâ'êlâh) “the Valley of the Terebineth”; DRA, WYC “the valley of Terebinth”; DARBY “the valley of Terebinths”; NKJV “the Valley of Elah” - found also in 1 Samuel 17:19; 21:9(H10). ^
  3. ר הה ל־הה אס') el-hâhâr) “toward the mountain”; NKJV, etc. “on the mountain” - same phrase also found in Exodus 24:15, 18 (“into the mountain” NKJV); 2 Kings 4:27 (“at the hill” NKJV); Isaiah 22:5 (“to the mountain” NKJV). “On the mountain” ר הה בה) bâhâr) is found e.g. in Genesis 31:54(2x); Exodus 24:18; 25:40, etc.. ^
  4. ם בל) bênayim) “duelists” (= “a person who fights a duel or duels” Oxford); YLT “duellists”; NKJV, etc. “champion”; CEV “hero” - dual plural form of the word for “between” ין בל) bêyn) e.g. 1 Samuel 17:1. Found also only in 1 Samuel 17:23 (1 Samuel 17:51 “champion” is בור גי] gibbor] “mighty man”). ^
  5. ת לי גה) gâlyât) “Goliath” - found also in 1 Samuel 17:23; 21:9(H10); 22:10; 2 Samuel 21:19; 1 Chronicles 20:5 -  ^
  6. = about 9ft., 8in. - for a cubit see footnote for Genesis 6:15 and for a span Exodus 28:16. ^
  7. שירייון) shiryon) “armor” - see footnote for 1 Samuel 14:1. ^
  8. ם שי קמ שי קמ) qasqassiym) “scales” DARBY, DRA, ERV, JUB; “coat of mail” YLT, NKJV – same word as “scales” (NKJV) in Leviticus 11:9-10, 12; Deuteronomy 14:9-10 (all Hebrew singular); Ezekiel 29:4(2x, Hebrew plural). ^
  9. CSB, CEB, CEV, EXB “one hundred twenty-five pounds” ^
  10. ת חמ צי מי) mitschat) “greave” (“a piece of armor used to protect the shin” Oxford); NAS, KJV “greaves”; NKJV “armor”; YLT “frontlet” - only found here. ^
  11. ו לה גי רמ) raglâyv) “his feet” YLT; “his legs” NKJV, etc.; – this is more literally “feet,” yet this word can mean “leg” e.g. in Exodus 25:26; 37:13 for the “legs” of a table. This armor is likely protecting both feet and shins. There is also יים עמי רה כי) kerâ`ayim) the “legs” of animals (e.g. Leviticus 9:14) and insects (e.g. Leviticus 11:21), or יים שקקמ) shoqayim) for “legs” (e.g. Proverbs 26:7) sometimes translated “thigh” (e.g. 1 Samuel 9:24). ^
  12. בירו) beru) “Eat” (Qal) - this is what the Hebrew says. Greek (LXX) says “Choose” ἐκλέξασθε (eklexasthe) translating it as if it were as in 1 Kings 18:25 במחוררו) bacharu) “Choose” for yourselves. Lamentations 4:10 uses this word in the Piel form for “their children became food for them.” Elsewhere, qal 2 Samuel 12:17; 13:6, 10 (“eat); Hiphil 2 Samuel 3:35; 13:5 (“eat”). ^
  13. י תי רה פי אס') ephrâtiy) “Ephraimite” CEB; “Ephrathite” YLT, NKJV, KJV, NAS, etc. - “Ephrathite” = “Ephraimite” see Judges 12:5 (and footnote) where this same word is translated “Ephraimite” by YLT, NKJV, KJV, NAS, etc.. ^
  14. ים נהשי אור במ א בה) bâ' va'anâshiym) “coming in among men”; KJV “went among men”; NKJV “advanced in years” ^
  15. ים דקלי גי) gedoliym) “oldest” - more literally, “greatest,” used in the sense of greater in age. ^
  16. חהלהב) châlâv) “cheese” - same word for “milk” (e.g. Judges 5:25) ^
  17. לום שה לי) leshâlom) “for peace” (i.e. see how they are doing); YLT “for welfare”; “look into the welfare” NAS ^
  18. ם תה בה רב עור`) arubâtâm) “their pledge” YLT, KJV (“take their pledge”); bring back “news of them” NKJV, NAS - “pledge” also only found in Proverbs 17:18. ^
  19. ה לה גה עי ממ) ma`ggâlâh) “trench” KJV, BRG, JUB; “barricade” Green; “path” YLT; “camp” NKJV; “circle of the camp” NAS – similar usage found also in 1 Samuel 26:5; 26:7. ^
  20. ם שה לי) leshâlom) “for peace” (i.e. see how they are doing); YLT “of welfare”; NKJV “greeted”; KJV “saluted” ^
  21. נמיים בל) bênayim) “duelists” - see footnote for vs 4. ^
  22. written רות עור ממ מי) mimma`arot) [written] “from caves”; read מיממעמריכות) mimma`archot) “from battle lines” ^
  23. ריאייתסם) re'iytem) “you seen” - plural “you” ^
  24. יתיים חי ים להתי אל') elohiym chayyiym)“living Gods” - plural noun, plural adjective. See footnote for Deuteronomy 5:26. ^
  25. Proverbs 17:17b “a brother is born for adversity.” ^
  26. וא ר בר דר לוא הל) halo' dâvâr hu') “Was it not a word?”; YLT “is it not a word?”; Green, ESV “Was it not but a word?”; NKJV, KJV “Is there not a cause?”; NAS “Was it not just a question?" ^
  27. ם חי ים להתי אל') elohiym chayyiym) “living Gods” plural noun, plural adjective – see also vs 26. ^
  28. Saul is wicked at this point, yet he still speaks God's name (Isaiah 29:13). ^
  29. יו דר מי) maddâyv) “his garments” NAS; “his long robe” YLT; “armor” NKJV – used in this context of military attire also in 1 Samuel 17:39; 18:4; 2 Samuel 20:8; and perhaps Judges 3:16; 5:10; 1 Samuel 4:12; Psalm 109:18; also a priest's attire in Leviticus 6:3; and “measures” in Jeremiah 13:25. ^
  30. יו דר מי) maddâyv) – “his garments” - same word as Saul's garments in vs 38. ^
  31. ים רעעתי) ro`im) plural participle, “shepherds'” YLT; “shepherd's” NKJV, etc.  ^
  32. אלתייִכי) keliy) “container”; NKJV, etc. “bag”; “habiliments” (“characteristic apparatus” Webster) YLT – this is a very general term, not specific. ^
  33. קוט אִיילי ובי) uvayyalqut) “and in the pouch”; CSB “in the pouch”; NKJV “in a pouch”; YLT “even in the scrip” (scrip = “archaic: a small bag or wallet” Webster); KJV “even in a scrip” - only found here ^
  34. “Thus says the LORD, "Let not a wise man boast of his wisdom, and let not the mighty man boast of his might, let not a rich man boast of his riches; but let him who boasts boast of this, that he understands and knows Me, that I am the LORD who exercises lovingkindness, justice, and righteousness on earth; for I delight in these things" (Jeremiah 9:23-24 NAS). See also Psalm 147:10-11; Zechariah 4:6 ^
  35. י תתי אִשי לתי אִפי ן־הי מתי ... םחלזיק י) yehezaq dâvid min-hapelishtiy) “stronger than . . the Philistine” YLT; “prevailed over the Philistine” NKJV, KJV, NAS – syntax dictates “stronger than.” It more literally reads, “strong . . . from the Philistine” which is how “stronger than the Philistine” would be worded. ^
  36. יתים רי על שי) sha`arayim) “Two Gates” (dual form of the word “gate”) - see footnote for Joshua 15:36. ^

5 Responses

  1. And David went to Nob to Ahimelech the priest. And Ahimelech trembled to meet David and said to him, “Why are you by yourself and no men are with you?” -- ש אי') iysh) “men” LEB; “man” YLT, KJV; “one” NKJV, NAS – this is more literally “man” (singular), but this same exact word is used to mean “men” often (e.g. 1 Samuel 17:24 “men” of Israel, ל אל רא יישר יש אי'] iysh yisrâ'êl]). And context dictates this is plural in meaning, since David was a captain (1 Samuel 18:13) and commonly coming and going with an army (1 Samuel 18:16). And, there were also some “young men,” ים רי נרעא) ne`âriym), here with David (vs. 4-5). So, context (greater and immediate) does not dictate he was absolutely by himself, but abnormally “alone” (i.e. no army).

  2. And after him was Shamma, son of Agee the Hararite. And Philistines were gathered to the company, and there was a portion of the field filled with lentils. And the people fled from before Philistines. -- שַׁמָּא (shammâ') “Shamma” LEB; “Shammah” NKJV, yet this same exact name is also in 1 Chronicles 7:37 “Shamma,” (NKJV) and there is also “Shammah” שַׁמָּה (shammâh) e.g. in 1 Samuel 17:13.

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