Daniel P. Barron

1 Samuel 14

Tuesday, March 9, 2021 

1 And it was the day, and Jonathan, son of Saul, said to his young man who was carrying his equipment i “Come, and let's go over to Philistines' garrison that is across this.” And to his father he did not declare. 2 And Saul was sitting at the end of the Hill under the pomegranate tree which is in Migron, ii and the people that were with him were about six hundred men. 3 And Ahijah, iii son of Ahitub, iv brother of Ichabod son of Phinehas, son of Eli, priest of Yehvah in Shiloh, was bearing an ephod. And the people did not know that Jonathan had gone.

4 And between the passes that Jonathan was seeking to cross over to Philistines' garrison was the tooth of the rock on this side and the tooth of the rock on this side. And the name of the one was Bozez, v and the name of the one Seneh. vi 5 The one tooth fixture was on the north and in front of Michmas, and the one tooth was on the south in front of Geba. vii

6 And Jonathan said to his young man carrying his equipment, “Come, and let's cross over to the garrison of these foreskinned. Perhaps, Yehvah will do for us, for there is no restraint to Yehvah to save in much or in little.” 7 And his equipment bearer said to him, “Do all that is in your heart inclined to you. Behold, I am with you as your heart.” 8 And Jonathan said, “Behold, we are crossing over to the men, and we will reveal ourselves to them. 9 And if thus they say to us, 'Be still until we reach you,' so we will stand in our place and not go up to them. 10 And if thus they say, 'Come up to us,' so we will go up; for Yehvah has given them in our hand. And this will be for us the sign.”

11 And the two of them revealed themselves to Philistines' garrison, and Philistines said, “Look, Hebrews are coming out from the holes where they were hiding.” 12 And the men of the garrison answered Jonathan and his equipment bearer and said, “Come up to us, and we will make known to you something.” And Jonathan said to his equipment bearer, “Come up after me, for Yehvah has given them in Israel's hand.” 13 And Jonathan went up upon his hands and upon his feet and his equipment bearer after him, and they fell before Jonathan; and his equipment bearer was killing after him. 14 And the first slaughter that Jonathan and his equipment bearer struck was about twenty men in about half a furrow viii of a pair of a field.

15 And there was a trembling in the camp, in the field, and among all the people. The garrison and the destroyer, ix they also trembled. And the earth quaked, and it was to a trembling of Gods. x 16 And the watchers to Saul at Hill of Benjamin saw, and behold, the multitude was melting away and went here and there. xi 17 And Saul said to the people who were with him, “Number, please, and see who has gone from with us.” And they numbered, and behold, Jonathan and his equipment bearer were not there. 18 And Saul said to Ahijah, “Bring near the ark of the Gods.” For the ark of the Gods was on that day with sons of Israel.

19 And it was, while Saul was speaking to the priest, so the noise that was in Philistines' camp, so it went going and becoming great. And Saul said to the priest, “Withdraw your hand.” 20 And Saul and all the people who were with him assembled and came unto the battle. And behold, each man's sword was against his neighbor, very great confusion. 21 And the Hebrews, who were for the Philistines before that time, who went up with them in the camp roundabout, so also they became with Israel who were with Saul and Jonathan. 22 And all the men of Israel who were hiding in mount Ephraim heard that Philistines fled, and they joined, they also, after them in the battle. 23 And Yehvah saved Israel on that day, and the battle passed over to House of Iniquity.

24 And men of Israel were hard-pressed on that day. And Saul put the people under an oath, saying, “Cursed is the man who eats bread until the evening, and I avenge myself from my enemy.” And all the people did not taste bread. 25 And all the land came in the forest, and there was honey upon the face of the field. 26 And the people came into the forest, and behold honey was flowing, and no one reached his hand to his mouth; for the people feared the oath.

27 And Jonathan had not heard about the oath of his father with the people. And he sent out the end of the staff that was in his hand and dipped her in the comb of the honey and brought his hand to his mouth, and his eyes saw. xii 28 And a man from the people answered and said, “Your father surely put the people under an oath saying, 'Cursed is the man who eats bread today.'” And the people were faint. 29 And Jonathan said, “My father has troubled the land. See, please, my eyes have brightened, because I tasted a little of this honey. 30 How much more if the people really ate today from the spoil of their enemies that were found? For now, there will be no great slaughter among the Philistines.”

31 And they struck on that day among the Philistines from Michmas to Aijalon, and the people were very faint. 32 And the people made to spoil and took sheep and cattle and sons of cattle and slaughtered on the earth, and the people ate upon the blood. 33 And they declared to Saul, saying, “Behold, the people are sinning to Yehvah to eat upon the blood.” And he said, “You have acted treacherously. Roll to me today a great stone.” 34 And Saul said, “Scatter in the people and say to them, 'Bring near to me each his ox and each his sheep and slaughter on this, and do not sin to Yehvah to eat to the blood.” And all the people brought near each his ox in his hand that night, and they slaughtered there. 35 And Saul built an altar to Yehvah. With it he began to build an altar to Yehvah. xiii

36 And Saul said, “Let's go down after Philistines at night and plunder them until the morning light, and we shall not leave among them a man.” And they said, “Do all the good in your eyes.” And the priest said, “Let's draw near here to the Gods.” 37 And Saul asked in Gods, “Shall I go down after Philistines? Will you give them in Israel's hand?” And he did not answer him on that day.

38 And Saul said, “Draw near here, all the corners xiv of the people, and know and see. In what was this sin today? 39 For Yehvah lives, who saves Israel, for if it is in Jonathan my son, so dying he shall die.” And no one answered him from all the people. 40 And he said to all Israel, “You be to one side, and I and Jonathan my son shall be to one side. And the people said to Saul, “Do the good in your eyes.” 41 And Saul said to Yehvah, Gods of Israel, “Give perfection.” And Jonathan and Saul were captured, and the people went out.

42 And Saul said, “Cast between me and Jonathan my son.” And Jonathan was captured. 43 And Saul said to Jonathan, “Declare to me what you have done.” And Jonathan declared to him and said, “Tasting I tasted with the end of the staff in my hand a little honey. Behold, I shall die.” 44 And Saul said, “Thus, Gods, shall he do and thus do again, for dying you shall die, Jonathan.”

45 And the people said to Saul, “Shall Jonathan die who has done this great salvation in Israel? Far be it, Yehvah lives, if from a hair of his head falls to earth, for he worked with Gods this day.” And the people redeemed Jonathan, and he did not die.

46 And Saul went up from after Philistines, and Philistines went to their place. 47 And Saul captured the kingship over Israel and waged war roundabout against all his enemies, against Moab, and against sons of Ammon, and against Edom, and against kings of Zobah, xv and against Philistines. And wherever he turned, he condemned. xvi 48 And he made an army and struck Amalek, and delivered Israel from his plunderer's hand.

49 And sons of Saul were Jonathan, and Jishui, and Melchi-Shua, xvii and the name of his two daughters, the name of his firstborn Merab, xviii and the name of the younger Michal. xix 50 And the name of Saul's woman was Ahinoam, xx daughter of Ahimaaz. xxi And the name of the leader of his army was Abiner, xxii son of Lamp, xxiii Saul's uncle. 51 And Kish was Saul's father, and Lamp, Abner's father, was Abiel's son.

52 And the war was severe against Philistines all of Saul's days. And Saul saw every mighty man and every son of valor, and he gathered him to himself.

1 Samuel 13 - 1 Samuel 15

Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdfs here and here.

  1. וָכ) kêlâyv) “his equipment”; YLT “his weapons”; NKJV “his armor” - plural noun, very general term, not specific. “armor” (NAS) e.g. is יון רי שר) shiryon). ^
  2. ן גי מר) migron) “Migron”; LXX Μαγδων (Magdôn) – found also in Isaiah 10:28 (LXX Μαγεδω [Magedô]). ^
  3. חחריויהִא') achiyyâh) “Ahijah” = “brother of Yah” or “my brother is Yah” - for this man also found in 1 Samuel 14:18. Others by this name, a scribe 1 Kings 4:3; a prophet 1 Kings 11:29-30; 12:15; 14:2, 4 (both חחריויהִא'] achiyyâh] and חחריויההוִא ['achiyyâhu]), 5-6 חחריויההוִא'] achiyyâhu]), 18 (חחריויההוִא'] achiyyâhu]); 2 Chronicles 9:29; 10:15 (יויההו חר חִא'] achiyyâhu]); a father, 1 Kings 15:27. 29, 33; 21:22; 2 Kings 9:9; in list of sons, 1 Chronicles 2:25; son of Ehud, 1 Chronicles 8:7; one of David's mighty men, 1 Chronicles 11:36; a Levite, 1 Chronicles 26:20; a leader, Nehemiah 10:26. ^
  4. ב חחרטוִא') achituv) “Ahitub” = my brother is goodness or brother of goodness – this name also found in 1 Samuel 22:9, 11-12, 20; 2 Samuel 8:17; 1 Chronicles 6:7-8, 11-12, 52; 9:11; 18:16; Ezra 7:2; Nehemiah 11:11. ^
  5. ץ לָבוצ) botsêts) “Bozez” - only here ^
  6. ה( הנ( ס) senneh) “Senneh”; CEV “Thornbush”; BDB “(= thorny)” - only here – same root word as “bush” in Exodus 3:2.  ^
  7. ע בע גוי) gâva`) “Geba” NAS; “Gibeah” YLT, NKJV, KJV – see footnote for 1 Samuel 13:16^
  8. ה נוי חִע מע) ma`anâh) “furrow” YLT, NAS – only also found in Psalm 129:3 in the plural “furrows” (NKJV). ^
  9. See footnote for 1 Samuel 13:17^
  10. ם להר אל') elohiym) “Gods”; YLT, etc. “God”; NKJV, KJV “very great” ^
  11. ם חִה וע ך ה( ללָי וע) vayyêlech vahalom) “and went here and there” - more literally, “and went and here”; LXX ἔνθεν καὶ ἔνθεν (enthen kai enthen) “from here and from here”; KJV “and they went on beating down one another,” apparently taking חלםִה) halom) to be הוילעם) châlom) to “beat” or “strike” down (e.g. Judges 5:26 “She pounded” Sisera, NKJV). ^
  12. written: ה אאנוי ר תוי) târ'onâh) “saw”; YLT “see”; read: תויאארינויה) tâ'ornâh) “brightened” NKJV ^
  13. 13 See e.g. Green, “With it he began to build an altar to Jehovah.” This is how it reads. ^
  14. ת וֹננּפו) pinnot) “corners” - see footnote for Judges 20:2. ^
  15. ה בָוֹצ) tsovâh) “Zobah” - found also in 2 Samuel 8:3, 5, 12; 10:6 and 8 “Zoba” (הא בָוֹצ] tsovâ]); 23:36; 1 Kings 11:23; 1 Chronicles 18:3; 5, 9; 19:6; 2 Chronicles 8:3; Psalm 60:1. ^
  16. )ניעּששוׁר( י)yarshiy`a) “he condemned” VOICE; “vex” YLT; “harassed” NKJV; “inflicted punishment” NAS – same word as in e.g. Proverbs 12:2 “condemn,” can also be translated “do wickedly” (e.g. Job 34:12) depending on context. ^
  17. )ועּני־שּשכוׁל( מ)malkiy-shu`a) “Melchi-Shua” YLT; “Malchishua” NKJV = “my king is opulence” (“great wealth or luxuriousness” Oxford) – found also in 1 Samuel 31:2; 1 Chronicles 8:33; 9:39; 10:2. ^
  18. ב( ָררַמ) mêrav) “Merab” - found also in 1 Samuel 18:17, 19. ^
  19. ל( יכ נּמו) mikhal) “Michal” (same word for “brook” in 2 Samuel 17:20) – found also in 1 Samuel 18:20, 27-28; 19:11-13, 17; 25:44; 2 Samuel 3:13-14; 6:16, 20-21, 23; 21:8; 1 Chronicles 15:29. ^
  20. ם( עעַנינּחחוִא') achiyno`am) “Ahinoam” (= “my brother is pleasant” e.g. Proverbs 3:17 “pleasant” NAS ם( עעַנ] no`am]) – found also for another woman, David's wife, in 1 Samuel 25:43; 27:3; 30:5; 2 Samuel 2:2; 3:2; 1 Chronicles 3:1. ^
  21. ץ( ע ה ימ נּחו חִא') achiymâ`ats) “Ahimaaz” - found also for a son of Zadok in 2 Samuel 15:27, 36; 17:17, 20; 18:19, 22-23, 27-29; 1 Chronicles 6:8-9, 53, and a “governor” (NKJV) of Solomon's, in 1 Kings 4:15 (if not the same man). ^
  22. ררַנינּבוָחִא') aviynêr) “Abiner” (= “my father is lamp”) only here; elsewhere ררַשנׁב( ָא') avnêr) “Abner” - found about 63 times ^
  23. ררַנ) nêr) “Lamp” (e.g. Exodus 27:20); “Ner” NKJV, etc, - found also in 1 Samuel 14:51; 26:5, 14; 2 Samuel 2:8, 12; 3:23, 25, 28, 37; 1 Kings 2:5, 32; 1 Chronicles 26:28; also for Saul's grandfather, father of Kish, 1 Chronicles 8:33;
    9:36, 39. ^

7 Responses

  1. So, why have you not listened to Yehvah's voice, and rushed to the spoil and did the bad in Yehvah's eyes?” -- "rushed to the spoil" – this is how 1 Samuel 14:32 is in the “read.” “Written” is.

  2. And he said, “They were my brothers, sons of my mother. Yehvah lives. If you had let them live, I would not have killed you.” -- “Yehvah lives” - YLT “Jehovah liveth”; Green “As Jehovah lives”; NKJV, etc. “As the LORD lives” - same exact words as in Psalm 18:46(H47) “The LORD lives!” (NKJV). Used when taking an oath (e.g. 1 Samuel 20:3; 1 Kings 1:29). This exact phrase can also be found in Ruth 3:13; 1 Samuel 14:39, 45; 19:6; 20:21; 25:26, 34; 26:10, 16; 28:10; 29:6; 2 Samuel 4:9; 12:5; 14:11; 15:21; 22:47; 1 Kings 2:24; 17:1, 12; 18:10, 15; 22:14; 2 Kings 2:2, 4, 6; 3:14; 4:30; 5:16, 20; 2 Chronicles 18:13; Jeremiah 4:2; 5:2; 12:16; 16:14-15; 23:7-8; 38:16; Hosea 4:15. There is also חיי־אפיל (chay-'êl) “God lives” in Job 27:2; ים להי אל א הה י חי) chay hâ'elohym, singular adjective, plural noun) “the God lives” or “the Gods, He lives” in 2 Samuel 2:27; הה ינהוי יי הנה ד י־אד חי) chay-'adonây yehvih) “Yehvih Lords lives” in Jeremiah 44:26; ה ינהוה י חי ת צנבהאו) chay yehvâh tsevâot) "Yehvah of armies lives" in Kings 18:15; 2 Kings 3:14; ם עולה הה י חפי) chay hâ`olâm) “the eternal one lives” in Daniel 12:7; by God Himself, ניי י־אה חי) chay-'âniy) “I live” in Numbers 14:21, 28; Isaiah 49:18; Jeremiah 22:24; 46:18; Ezekiel 5:11; 14:16, 18, 20; 16:48; 17:16, 19; 18:3; 20:3, 31, 33; 33:11, 27; 34:8; 35:6, 11; Zephaniah 2:9; and ם הלה ע לנ י הכי נ אה י חי) chay 'ânokiy le`olâm) “I live forever” in Deuteronomy 32:40.

  3. And this man went up from his city from days to days to worship and to sacrifice to Yehvah of hosts in Shiloh. And there were two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, priests to Yehvah. -- יִע`) êliy) “Eli” - found also in 1 Samuel 1:9, 12-14, 17, 25; 2:11-12, 20, 22, 27; 3:1-2, 5-6, 8-9, 12, 14-16; 4:4, 11, 13-16, 18; 14:3; 1 Kings 2:27. This is not the same “Eli” as in Matthew 27:46 “Eli,” Greek Ἠλί (êli), Hebrew ללייִא') êliy) = “my God” (Psalm 22:1).

  4. And the three hundred blew the horns, and Yehvah set a sword each against his friend and against all the camp. And the camp fled unto House of the Acacia toward Zererah as far as edge of Abel Meholah by Tabbath.
    -- Similar, 1 Samuel 14:20; 2 Chronicles 20:23

  5. And a helmet of bronze was upon his head, and he was wearing armor of scales. And the weight of the armor was five thousand shekels of bronze. -- שירייון) shiryon) “armor” - see footnote for 1 Samuel 14:1.

  6. And he changed his discretion in their eyes and acted insane in their hand. And he marked upon the doors of the gate and caused his saliva to go down to his beard. -- מוְט) ta`mo) noun w/suffix, “his discretion”; NKJV “his behavior”; disguised “his sanity” NAS – this word is used for “taste” in Exodus 16:31; Numbers 11:8; 1 Samuel 14:24 (verb); 29 (verb), 43 (verb); 2 Samuel 3:35 (verb); 19:35(H36, verb); Job 6:6; 12:11 (verb); 34:3 (verb); Jeremiah 48:11; and for “discretion” in 1 Samuel 25:33 (YLT); Job 12:20 (“discernment” NKJV); Psalm 119:66 (“discernment” NKJV); Proverbs 11:22; 26:16 (“sensibly” NKJV); 31:18 (“perceives” NKJV); Jonah 3:7 (noun, “decree,” verb “taste” NKJV); NKJV translates this word “behavior” in Psalm 34:1 and “taste” (NKJV) in Psalm 34:9, in this same context with David and Achish.

  7. And one young man, from the young men, told to Abigail, Fool's woman, saying, “Behold, David sent messengers from the wilderness to bless our lords and he screamed at them. -- ט רְיעעמ) yâ`at) “screamed” Green, CSB, EHV, ISV, NET, NLT, BDB; “scorned” NAS; “reviled” NKJV; “railed” KJV – typically only translated “screamed” here, but 1 Samuel 14:32 (read) & 15:19 could be “screamed” as well. This verb is the same root as the noun for “bird of prey” לט ריְעמ`) ayit, e.g. Genesis 15:11) which both appear to be an onomatopoeia.

    And David took Ahinoam from Jezreel, and they both were also to him for women. -- This is also the name of Saul's wife. See 1 Samuel 14:50.

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