Daniel P. Barron

1 Samuel 13

Monday, March 8, 2021 

1 Saul was a son of a year in his reign, and his second year reigning over Israel, 2 so Saul chose for himself three thousand from Israel. And two thousand were with Saul in Michmas i and in mountain of House of God, and a thousand were with Jonathan in Hill of Benjamin. And the rest of the people he sent each to his tent.

3 And Jonathan struck a garrison of Philistines that was in Geba, and Philistines heard. And Saul blew in the horn in all the land, saying, “Let the Hebrews hear.” 4 And all Israel heard, saying, “Saul has struck a garrison of Philistines, and also Israel has become a stench ii among Philistines.” And the people were called together after Saul at the Gilgal.

5 And Philistines were gathered together to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen, and people as sand that is upon the seashore for multitude. And they went up and camped in Michmas, east of House of Iniquity. 6 And men of Israel saw that it was dire iii to them, for the people were distressed. And they hid themselves in the caves and in the thickets and in the rocks and in the strongholds iv and in the pits. 7 And Hebrews crossed over to land of Gad and Gilead, and Saul was yet in the Gilgal; and all the people trembled after him.

8 And he waited seven days according to the appointed time, that by Samuel. And Samuel did not come to the Gilgal, and the people were scattered from him. 9 And Saul said, “Bring to me the burnt offering and the peace offerings.” And he offered up the burnt offering. 10 And it was, as he finished offering the burnt offering, so behold, Samuel came; and Saul went out to meet him to bless him. 11 And Samuel said, “What have you done?” And Saul said, “Because I saw that the people were scattering from me, and you had not come according to the appointed time of the days; and Philistines were gathering at Michmas. 12 And I said, 'Now, Philistines will come down to me at the Giglal, and the face of Yehvah I did not entreat.' So, I forced myself, and I offered the burnt offering.”

13 And Samuel said to Saul, “You have done foolishly. You did not keep Yehvah your Gods' commandment that he commanded you. v For now Yehvah would have established your kingdom to Israel forever. 14 And now, your kingdom shall not arise. vi Yehvah has sought for himself a man as his heart. And Yehvah has commanded him for a leader over his people, because you did not keep what Yehvah commanded you.”

15 And Samuel arose, and went up from the Gilgal to the Hill of Benjamin. And Saul numbered the people, those found with him, about six hundred men. 16 And Saul and Jonathan his son and the people found with them were dwelling in Geba vii of Benjamin, and Philistines were camped in Michmas. 17 And the destroyer viii went out from Philistines camp, three companies, the one company turned to the way of Ophrah to land of Fox. ix 18 And the one company turned to the way of House of Horon, and the one company turned to the way of the border that looks down upon the valley of Zeboim x toward the wilderness.

19 And a blacksmith was not found in all Israel's land, for Philistines said, “Lest the Hebrews make a sword or a spear.” 20 And all Israel went down to the Philistines to sharpen each his plowshare, and his coulter, xi and his axe, and his hoe. xii 21 And the sharpening xiii was a pim xiv for the plowshares, and for the coulters, and for a three-pronged fork, xv and for the axes, and to cause the goad to stand. xvi 22 And it was, on battle day, so there was not found a sword or a spear in any hand of the people that were with Saul and Jonathan. And for Saul and Jonathan, his son, she was found. xvii 23 And Philistines' garrison went out to Michmas' pass.

1 Samuel 12 - 1 Samuel 14

Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdf.

  1. ; ש מש כמ מכ) mikhmâs) “Michmas” TLV; “Michmash” NKJV, etc.; Μαχεμας (Machemas) LXX - the “sh” in “Michmash” does not match either the Hebrew or Greek spelling. There is no “sh” in Greek – found also in 1 Samuel 13:5, 11, 16, 23; 14:5, 31; Ezra 2:27 ס מש כמ מכ) mikhmâs); Nehemiah 7:31 מככממשס) mikhmâs); 11:31; Isaiah 10:28 ^
  2. ש אש במ נכ) niv'ash) “stench” CJB, EHV, ESV, JUB, LEB, TLV; “stink” Green; “abhorred” YLT; “abomination” NKJV, KJV; “odious” (= “extremely unpleasant; repulsive” [Oxford]) NAS – see footnote for Genesis 34:30. ^
  3. ו צש) tsar-lo) “dire to them” (more lit., “dire to him”); NKJV “they were in danger”; YLT “they are distressed”; NAS, KJV “they were in a strait” ^
  4. ם חכ רכ צמ) tserichiym) “strongholds” - see footnote for Judges 9:46. ^
  5. 1 Samuel 10:8^
  6. ם תש) tâqum) “arise”; WYC “rise further”; YLT “stand”; NKJV, KJV “continue”; NAS “endure” ^
  7. ע בש גב) geva`) “Geba” NAS; “Gibeah” YLT, NKJV, KJV – for “Gibeah” see Joshua 15:57 footnote. For “Geba” see footnote in Joshua 18:24. ^
  8. ת חכ שמ מש הש) hammashchiyt) “the destroyer” YLT; “raiders” NKJV; “the spoilers” KJV – same word as “the destroyer” (NKJV) in Exodus 12:23, found also in 2 Samuel 24:16//1 Chronicles 21:15 (angel “who was destroying” NKJV); 2 Kings 23:13 (“destruction” NAS); Jeremiah 51:25 (2x “destroying”; “who destroys”); Ezekiel 9:8 (“destroying” NKJV). ^
  9. לָשו) shu`âl) “Fox” - see footnote for Joshua 15:28. ^
  10. ים עכָבע צמ) tsevo`iym) “Zeboim” - also found in Nehemiah 11:34. See also footnote for “Zeboim” in Genesis 10:19. ^
  11. אותתו') êto) “coulter” (“a vertical cutting blade fixed in front of a plowshare” Oxford) YLT, KJV; “mattock” NKJV, NAS – found also in 1 Samuel 13:21; Isaiah 2:4//Micah 4:3; Joel 3:10(H4:10). ^
  12. רותששתוֵמשח) macharêshâto) “hoe” NAS; “mattock” YLT, KJV; “sickle” NKJV – same word spelled slightly different for “plowshare” וו ֹררששמתֵמשח) macharashto) earlier in the verse ^
  13. ה ירש צכ פמ) petsiyrâh) “sharpening” noun, only here, related to the verb to “press” or “urge” פשצשר) pâtsar) e.g. Genesis 19:3; 33:11; 2 Samuel 13:25. ^
  14. פכים) piym) “pim” (= “1/4 oz.” Holladay) NKJV; “two-thirds of a shekel” NAS ^
  15. שון למ קכ לש שמ) shelosh qilleshon) “three-pronged fork” singular noun; YLT “three-pronged rakes”; NKJV, KJV, NAS “forks”; Holladay “trident” - this is “three” לש שמ) shelosh) with an uncertain term only found here, שון למ קכ) qilleshon). ^
  16. ב צכ הש למ) lehatstsiyv) “to cause . . . to stand”; YLT “to set up” the goads; NKJV “to set the points” of the goads; NAS “top fix” the hoes; KJV “to sharpen” the goads. ^
  17. א צות מש תכ) timmâtsê') “she was found” - feminine verb referring to the feminine noun “sword” ב רב חב) cherev). ^

4 Responses

  1. [...] The one tooth fixture was on the north and in front of Michmas, and the one tooth was on the south in front of Geba. -- “Geba” NAS; “Gibeah” YLT, NKJV, KJV – see footnote for 1 Samuel 13:16. [...]

    [...] And there was a trembling in the camp, in the field, and among all the people. The garrison and the destroyer, they also trembled. And the earth quaked, and it was to a trembling of Gods. -- See footnote for 1 Samuel 13:17. [...]

  2. And all lords of Shechem's tower heard, and they went into a stronghold of Covenant god's House. -- “stronghold” NKJV, etc.; “inner chamber” NAS; “hold” KJV – exact meaning unknown. Found also in Judges 9:49; 1 Samuel 13:6 (“holes” NKJV).

  3. He chose new gods, then, war at gates. Was there a shield seen or a spear in 40,000 in Israel? -- 1 Samuel 13:19-20

  4. And Zillah also bore Tubal-Cain, an instructor of every craftsman of bronze and iron. And the sister of Tubal-Cain was Naamah. -- “instructor” - vfel¿ (lotêsh) - This is more literally a “sharpener” as can be seen in its usage in 1 Samuel 13:20; Job
    16:9; and Psalm 7:12.

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