Daniel P. Barron

1 Samuel 1

Tuesday, January 12, 2021 

  i 1 And there was one man from the Heights of Watchmen ii from mount Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, son of Jeroham, iii son of Elihu, iv son of Tohu, v son of Zuph, vi an Ephramite. 2 And he had two women, name of one Hannah, vii and the name of the second, Peninnah. viii And Peninnah had children, and Hannah had no children.

3 And this man went up from his city from days to days ix to worship x and to sacrifice to Yehvah of hosts xi in Shiloh. And there were two sons of Eli, xii Hophni xiii and Phinehas, priests to Yehvah. 4 And it was the day, and Elkanah sacrificed and gave portions to Peninnah his woman and to all her sons and her daughters. 5 And to Hannah he gave one double portion, for he loved Hannah. And Yehvah had closed her womb.

6 And her rival xiv provoked her, indeed provocation in order to cause her to thunder, xv because Yehvah had closed away her womb. 7 And so he did xvi year by year as often as she went up to the house of Yehvah, so she provoked her. And she wept and did not eat. 8 And Elkanah her man said to her, “Hannah, why are you weeping? And why do you not eat? And why is your heart bad? Am I not better to you than ten sons?” 9 And Hannah arose after eating and drinking in Shiloh. xvii

And Eli the priest was sitting upon the chair by the doorpost of the temple xviii of Yehvah. 10 And she was bitter of soul and prayed to Yehvah, and weeping, she wept. 11 And she made a vow and said, “Yehvah of hosts, if seeing, you look on the affliction of your maidservant and remember me and do not forget your maidservant and give to your maidservant a seed of men, so I will give him to Yehvah all the days of his life and a razor shall not go up upon his head.”

12 And it was, that she made much prayer before Yehvah, and Eli was watching her mouth. 13 And Hannah, she was speaking in her heart, only her lips were quivering, xix and her voice was not heard. And Eli thought she was drunk. 14 And Eli said to her, “How long will you be drunk? Put your wine away from you.”

15 And Hannah answered and said, “No my lord, I am a woman of difficult spirit, and wine and strong drink I have not drank. And I have poured out my soul before Yehvah. Do not put your maidservant with a daughter of Belial, for from the abundance of my complaint and my grief I have spoken unto here.” 17 And Eli answered and said, “Go in peace, and Gods of Israel give your request that you have asked from him.” 18 And she said, “Let your maidservant find grace in your eyes.” And the woman went her way and ate, and her face was no longer sad. xx

19 And they rose early in the morning and worshiped Yehvah. And returned and went to their house, to Height. And Elkanah knew Hannah his woman, and Yehvah remembered her. 20 And it was to the circuit of the days, so Hannah conceived and bore a son. And she called his name Samuel, xxi because she asked for him from Yehvah.

21 And the man Elkanah went up and all his house to sacrifice to Yehvah the sacrifice of the days and his vow. 22 And Hannah did not go up, because she said to her man, “Until the boy is weaned, and I bring him and appear before Yehvah; and he will stay there forever.” 23 And Elkanah her man said to her, “Do the good in your eyes. Stay until you wean him. Only, let Yehvah establish his word.” And the woman stayed and nursed her son until she weaned him.

24 And she brought him up with her just as she weaned him, with three bulls and one ephah of flour and a skin of wine. And she brought him to the house of Yehvah, Shiloh. And the boy was young. 25 And they slaughtered the bull and brought the boy to Eli. 26 And she said, “Oh my lord, your soul lives, my lord, I am the woman who was standing by you here praying to Yehvah. 27 For this boy I prayed, and Yehvah gave to me my request that I asked from him. 28 And also I have lent him to Yehvah all the days that he is, he is lent to Yehvah.” And they worshiped Yehvah there.

Ruth 4 - 1 Samuel 2

Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdf.

  1. This is the Hebrew title. The Greek (LXX) title is “1 Kings.” ^
  2. ם צופי) tsophiym) “Watchmen” - NKJV, etc. “Zophim” - see footnote for Numbers 23:14. ^
  3. םם חחָררֹי) yerochâm) “Jeroham” - found also in 1 Chronicles 6:27(H12), 34(H19); 8:27; 9:8, 12; 12:7(H8); 27:2; 2 Chronicles 23:1; Nehemiah 11:12 ^
  4. א ללייהוִא') eliyhu') [= “He is my God”] “Elihu” - found also in 1 Chronicles 12:20; 26:7 ללייהוִא') eliyhu); 27:18 ללייהוִא ('eliyhu); Job 32:2, 4 ללייהוִא') eliyhu), 5-6; 34:1; 35:1 ללייהוִא') eliyhu); 36:1. ^
  5. חוָת) tochu) “Tohu” - only here ^
  6. ף צו) tsuph) “Zuph” - found also in 1 Samuel 9:5 (land of Zuph); 1 Chronicles 6:35(H20) ^
  7. ה ם נ חנ) channâh) “Hannah” - found also in 1 Samuel 1:5, 8-9, 13, 15, 19-20, 22; 2:1, 21^
  8. ה ם נ ני רֹפ) peninnâh) “Peninnah” - found also in 1 Samuel 1:4^
  9. ה ם ימ םמי י ים םמי י מי) miyyâmiym yâmiymâh) “from days to days”; YLT “from time to time”; DRA “the appointed days”; WYC “the days that were ordained”; NKJV, KJV, NAS “yearly” - see footnote for Exodus 13:10. ^
  10. ות חו תנ רֹש הי רֹל) lehishttachaot) “to worship” = “to bow down” e.g. same exact word in Genesis 37:10; Leviticus 26:1. ^
  11. ת ם רבֹצ) tsevâ'ot) “hosts” - this is the same word for “armies” (e.g. Deuteronomy 20:9) or the “host” (singular form, א ם ב רֹצ] tsevâ']) or “multitude” of the heavens (i.e. stars, etc., e.g. Deuteronomy 4:19). Yehvah is the God of armies. He is a Man of war (Exodus 15:3). And He is the God of all and everything (the hosts/multitudes) in existence (Colossians 1:16). “Yehvah of hosts” is found about 245 times in the OT. Here is the first appearance. ^
  12. יִע`) êliy) “Eli” - found also in 1 Samuel 1:9, 12-14, 17, 25; 2:11-12, 20, 22, 27; 3:1-2, 5-6, 8-9, 12, 14-16; 4:4, 11, 13-16, 18; 14:3; 1 Kings 2:27. This is not the same “Eli” as in Matthew 27:46 “Eli,” Greek Ἠλί (êli), Hebrew ללייִא') êliy) = “my God” (Psalm 22:1). ^
  13. ניי רֹפ ם ח) châphniy) “Chophni”; NKJV, etc. “Hophni” - found also in 1 Samuel 2:34; 4:4, 11, 17^
  14. ה ם ת ם ר ם צ) tsârâtâh) “her rival” - this concept of a rival wife can also be found in Leviticus 18:18 and Genesis 30. ^
  15. ה ם מ עי רֹר הנ) harr`imâh) “to cause her to thunder” Hiphal (causal form) infinitive w/suffix – YLT, Green “to make her tremble”; NKJV “to make her miserable”; NAS “to irritate her”; KJV “to make her fret” - this is the verb for “thunder” in 1 Samuel 2:10; 7:10; 2 Samuel 22:14; Job 37:4-5; 40:9; Psalm 18:13(H14); 29:3; 81:7(H8), used also for the roaring (or thundering) of the sea in 1 Chronicles 16:32; Psalm 96:11; 98:7, used one other time for human reaction in Ezekiel 27:35 for more literally, “faces will thunder” (context dictates great fear). The related noun (“thunder”) is found in Job 26:14; 39:25; Psalm 77:18(H19); 104:7; Isaiah 29:6. ^
  16. ה שה ינעו) ya`aseh) “he did” KJV, Green, ASV, CJB, etc.; “he doth” YLT; “it was” NKJV; “it happened” NAS. ^
  17. Looks like a very submissive woman. Though distressed, she ate and drank after her husband talked to her about it. Yet, she is still distressed, as the story shows. ^
  18. ל יכנ לִה) hêykhal) “temple” KJV, NAS, Green, YLT; “tabernacle” NKJV – same word for Solomon's “temple” (e.g. 1 Kings 6:5). Yet, here in Shiloh the house of God was still in “tent” form (e.g. Joshua 19:51). ^
  19. םעות נ) nâ`ot) “were quivering” NASB, ISV; “moved” NKJV, KJV; “were moving” NAS – translated “trembled” e.g. in Exodus 20:18 NKJV, NAS; “sway” over trees in Judges 9:9 NKJV; “disturb” (NAS) or “move” (NKJV) bones in 2 Kings 23:18; etc.. ^
  20. No word for sad here, but it is implied. ^
  21. ללִא רמוֹש) shemuêl) “Samuel” = “His name is God” - found also throughout 1 Samuel and also in 1 Chronicles 6:28, 33; 9:22; 11:3; 26:28; 29:29; 2 Chronicles 35:18; Psalm 99:6; Jeremiah 15:1. ^

4 Responses

  1. And Yehvah sent Jerubbaal, and Bedan, viii and Jephthah, and Samuel, and delivered you from your enemies' hand roundabout. And you dwelt safely.” “Bedan”; LXX Βαρακ (Barak) “Barak” - Order of names in this verse is Jerubbaal (Gideon, Judges 6); Bedan (Barak?, Barak is Judges 4); Jephthah (Judges 11); Samuel (1 Samuel 1).

  2. Afterwards, you shall go to the hill of the Gods where there are Philistine garrisons. And it shall be, as your coming in there of the city, so you shall meet a group of prophets going down from the high place, and before them a harp, and tambourine, and flute, and lyre. And they shall be prophesying. -- ל בן נל) nêvel) “harp” NAS; “psaltery” KJV, YLT (“psaltery” is from LXX ψαλτήριον [psaltêrion, not found in this passage, but used for ל בן נל) nêvel) in e.g. Psalm 56:8(H9, LXX9), etc.]); “stringed instrument” NKJV – ל בן נל) nêvel) used for a ten stringed instrument in Psalm 33:2; 144:9. This same exact word is also used for a “skin” of wine (e.g. 1 Samuel 1:24; 10:3; etc.).

  3. And the man knew Eve his woman and she conceived and bore Cain and said, “I have acquired a man from Yehvah.” -- “knew” - This kind of language is used for sexual intercourse (e.g. Genesis 4:17, 25; 38:26; Judges 11:39; 19:25; 1 Samuel 1:19; Matthew 1:25; and Luke 1:34).

  4. And just as Isaiah foretold, “Unless Lord of hosts left behind to us a seed, we would have become as Sodom, and we would have been made like Gomorrah.” -- Σαβαὼθ (Sabaôth) “hosts” Green; “Sabaoth” (transliteration) NKJV, same word as in e.g. 1 Samuel 1:3 “hosts” LXX.

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