Daniel P. Barron

1 Samuel 22

Friday, April 30, 2021 

1 And David went and escaped to a cave of Adullam. And his brothers and all his father's house heard and went down to him there. 2 And everyone who was distressed, and everyone who had a creditor, i and everyone bitter of soul, gathered together to him, and he was over them for a leader. And they were with him, about four hundred men.

3 And David went from there to Moab's Lookout, and he said to Moab's king, “Please let my father and mother come with you until I know what Gods, he does to me.” 4 And he led them before Moab's king, and they stayed with him all the days David was in the stronghold. ii

5 And Gad, the prophet, said to David, “Do not stay in the stronghold. Go and come in to Judah's land.” So David went and came in Hereth's iii forest. iv 6 And Saul heard that David, and men who were with him, were discovered. And Saul was sitting on the Hill under the tamarisk in the Height, and his spear was in his hand and all his servants standing by him. 7 And Saul said to his servants standing by him, “Listen now, Benjamites, will Jesse's son also give to you-all fields and vineyards and make you-all leaders of thousands and leaders of hundreds? 8 For all of you have conspired against me, and no one uncovers my ear, my son cutting with Jesse's son. And no one of you is sick v for me. And no one uncovers my ear that my son has raised up my servant against me to lie in wait, as it is this day.”

9 And Doeg, the Edomite (so he was standing by Saul's servants) vi answered and said, “I saw Jesse's son coming in to Nob to Ahimelech, son of Ahitub. 10 And he asked for him in Yehvah and gave to him food and gave to him Goliath the Philistine's sword.” 11 And the king sent to call Ahimelech, son of Ahitub, the priest, and all his father's house, the priests who were in Nob. And all of them came to the king.

12 And Saul said, “Listen now, son of Ahitub.” And he said, “Here I am, my lord.” 13 And Saul said to him, “Why have you vii conspired against me, you and Jesse's son, in giving to him bread and a sword; and asking for him in Gods, to arise against me, to lie in wait, as it is this day?” 14 And Ahimelech answered the king and said, “And who among all your servants is as David, faithful, and son-in-law of the king, and who turns viii to your guard, ix and is honored in your house? 15 Today I begin to ask for him in Gods? Far be it to me! Let not the king place a thing on his servant, on all my father's house, for your servant did not know in all this matter, little or great.”

16 And the king said, “Dying, you shall die, Ahimelech, you and all your father's house.” 17 And the king said to the runners, those standing by him, “Turn around and kill Yehvah's priests, for their hand is also with David; and because they knew he was fleeing and did not uncover his ear.” x And the servants of the king were not willing to send their hand to attack Yehvah's priests. 18 And the king said to Doyeg, xi “You turn around and attack the priests.” And Doyeg the Edomite turned around and attacked the priests and killed on that day eighty five men xii who carried a linen ephod.

19 And Nob, the city of the priests, he struck by a sword's mouth, from man and unto woman, from child and unto infant, and cattle, and donkey, and flock by a sword's mouth. xiii 20 And one son to Ahimelech, son of Ahitub, escaped, and his name was Abiathar; xiv and he fled after David. 21 And Abiathar told David that Saul killed Yehvah's priests.

22 And David said to Abiathar, “I knew on that day that Doyeg xv the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul. I have brought this around on every soul of your father's house. 23 Stay with me. Do not fear, for he who seeks my soul seeks your soul. You will be safe with me.”

1 Samuel 21 - 1 Samuel 23

Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdf.

  1. א נששא ר־לו אשא') sher-lo noshe') “who had a creditor,” more lit. “who was to him a creditor,” i.e. “who was in debt.” Proverbs 22:7b “the borrower is servant to the lender.” ^
  2. ה צודה מצ) metsudâh) “stronghold” NKJV, NAS; “fortress” YLT; “hold” KJV – It appears the “cave of Adullam” = “the stronghold,” see 1 Samuel 22:1 (cave), 4 (stronghold); 2 Samuel 23:13 (cave)-14 (stronghold)//1 Chronicles 11:15 (cave) -16 (stronghold). If so, Adullam was then not considered part of Judah (1 Samuel 22:5), but later was (2 Chronicles 11:5-7). The Hebrew word here for “stronghold” is used of David's stronghold in 1 Samuel 22:5; 24:22; 2 Samuel 5:17; 23:14; 1 Chronicles 11:16; [12:8 & 16 דד מצצ) metsad)]; for the stronghold of Zion in 2 Samuel 5:7, 9; 1 Chronicles 11:5, 7; for God being a stronghold in 2 Samuel 22:3; Psalm 18:2; 31:2 (plural, “a house of strongholds”), 3; 71:3; 91:2; 144:2; for the stronghold of Tyre in 2 Samuel 24:7; an eagle's stronghold in Job 39:28. Same word also used for “net” (NKJV) Psalm 66:11; Ezekiel 12:13 & 17:20 “snare” (NKJV); and for “prey” in Ezekiel 13:21. Finally, the mountain fortress in Israel, Masada, ההההההה) metsâdâh), is from this same root. ^
  3. ת רא חה) châhet) “Hereth” - only found here – LXX Σαριχ (Sarich) “Saric” LXA ^
  4. ר דע י') a`ar) “forest”; LXX πόλει (polei) “city” ^
  5. חשלאה) choleh) “sick” (e.g. same exact word as in 1 Samuel 19:14 “sick”); NKJV “sorry”; YLT “grieving” ^
  6. “who was standing by the servants of Saul” NAS; “who was set over the servants of Saul” NKJV – can mean either. ^
  7. רצתאם קצש) qeshartem) “you conspired” - “you” here is plural. ^
  8. סהר) sâr) “turns”; YLT “turned”; NKJV “goes at”; NAS “captain” (as if it was ר ד ש] sar] e.g. Genesis 37:36 NKJV) ^
  9. ך תא עצ ד מ שצ מש) mishma`tekhâ) “your guard” NAS; “your council” YLT; “your bidding” NKJV, specific meaning unknown – found also in 2 Samuel 23:23//1 Chronicles 11:25 (“guard” NAS, NKJV, YLT, KJV); Isaiah 11:14 (“subject to” NAS; “obey” NKJV). As can be see by the variance in translation, this is an unknown phrase, “who turns to your guard” סהר .(tekhâ`mishma- el 'sâr (אא ל־מש שצ מ ד עצ תא ך ך 1 ^
  10. Written נו זצ אה') âzno) “his ear”; read אהזצנשי') âzniy) “my ear” ^
  11. Written דויגג) doyêg ) “Doyeg”; read ג דואג) do'êg), also in vs. 22. ^
  12. Sounds like James 5:6, “You have murdered the just. He does not resist you.” 85 to 1, and the one kills them all! ^
  13. Saul was quite the murderer (Revelation 21:8 “murderers”) killing Gibeonites also. See 2 Samuel 21:1. ^
  14. ר יהתה בצ אא') evyâtâr) “Abiathar” - found also in 1 Samuel 22:21-22; 23:6, 9; 30:7; 2 Samuel 8:17; 15:24, 27, 29, 35; 17:15; 19:11; 20:25; 1 Kings 1:7, 19, 25, 42; 2:22, 26-27, 35; 4:4; 1 Chronicles 15:11; 18:16; 24:6; 27:34; Mark 2:26 Ἀβιάθαρ (Abiathar) same as LXX. ^
  15. See Psalm 52. ^

3 Responses

  1. And he said, “Yehvah is my rock and my stronghold and my deliverer for me. -- מְצֻדָתִי (metsudâtiy) “stronghold” - same word as “stronghold” in 1 Samuel 22:4-5; 24:23; 2 Samuel 5:7, 9; 17.

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