Daniel P. Barron

Acts 2

Saturday, April 30, 2022 

1 And in the fulfilling of the day of Pentecost i they were all ii with one accord at the same. 2 And suddenly out of heaven came a noise as of bearing a violent wind and it filled the whole house where they were sitting, 3 and divided tongues appeared to them like fire, and sat upon each one of them. 4 And they were all filled of the Holy Spirit, and they began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit gave them to utter. 5 And there was in Jerusalem Jews dwelling, devout men, from every nation which is iii under the heaven.

6 And when this sound happened, the multitude came together and was confused, because they heard, each one's own language iv spoken from them. 7 And all were amazed and marveling, v saying to one another, 8 “And how are we hearing each our own language in which we were born? 9 Parthians vi and Medes vii and Elamites, viii and the residents of Mesopotamia, ix Judea and also Cappadocia, x Pontus xi and the Asia, xii 10 Phrygia xiii and also Pamphylia, xiv Egypt and the parts of the Libya xv that down from Cyrene, xvi and Roman visitors, and Jews and proselytes, 11 Cretans xvii and Arabs, xviii we are hearing them speak in our languages the great things of God.” 12 And they were all amazed and perplexed. Others were saying to one another, “What might this be?” xix 13 And others were mocking saying that, “They are filled with new wine.” xx

14 And Peter standing with the eleven, lifted up his voice and declared to them, “Jewish xxi men, and all the ones dwelling in Jerusalem, let this be known to you and heed my words. 15 For not, as you suppose, are these drunk. For it is the third hour of the day. 16 But this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel, xxii

17 'And it shall be in the last days,' says God, “I will pour out from my spirit upon all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, xxiii and your young men shall see visions, and your elders xxiv shall dream dreams. 18 And also xxv upon my male slaves xxvi and upon my female slaves xxvii in those days I will pour out from my spirit, and they shall prophesy. 19 And I will give wonders in the heaven above and signs upon the earth below, blood and fire and vapor of smoke. 20 The Sun shall be turned into darkness and the Moon into blood, before the coming of the great and awesome xxviii day of the Lord. 21 And it shall be, everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.' xxix

22 “Men, Israelis, xxx hear these words. Joshua the Nazarene, xxxi a man attested xxxii from God unto you by powers and wonders and signs which God did by him in your midst, just as also these things you know. 23 This one delivered by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, taking by lawless hands, crucifying, you killed, 24 whom God raised up loosing the pangs of death; for it was not possible to hold him by it. 25 For David says about him,

'I was foreseeing xxxiii the Lord before me through all, for he is at my right that I might not be shaken. 26 Because of this my heart rejoiced and my tongue was glad, and yet also my flesh will nest xxxiv in hope. 27 For you will not forsake xxxv my soul into Hades, nor will you give your holy one xxxvi to see corruption. xxxvii 28 You made known to me ways of life. You will make me full of joy with your face.'

29 Men, brethren, being lawful xxxviii to speak with boldness to you about the patriarch xxxix David that he is both dead and buried, and his tomb is with us until this day. 30 Therefore, being a prophet and knowing that God swore an oath to him - out of fruit of his loins, xl which is according to flesh, to raise up the Christ xli to sit upon his throne. 31 Foreseeing, he spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was his soul forsaken unto Hades, xlii nor did his flesh see corruption.”

32 “This Joshua, God rose up, of which we are all witnesses. xliii 33 Therefore, being exalted to the right of God, and receiving the promise of the holy spirit from the father, he poured out this which now you see and hear. 34 For David did not ascend into the heavens, xliv but he says himself, 'The Lord said to my lord, “Sit at my right, 35 until I make your enemies a footstool of your feet.”' xlv 36 Therefore, let all the house of Israel know assuredly xlvi that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Joshua whom you crucified.”

37 And hearing, they were cut xlvii to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “What should we do, xlviii men, brethren?” 38 And Peter said to them, “Repent and be immersed, each of you, upon xlix the name of Joshua Christ unto forgiveness of sins, and you shall receive the gift of the holy spirit. 39 For the promise is to you and to your children and to all who are afar off, as many as the Lord our God might call.” l 40 And with many other words he solemnly testified and exhorted saying, “Be saved from this crooked li generation.”

41 Then indeed the ones who gladly received his words were immersed, and about three thousand souls were added that day. 42 And they were continuing lii in the doctrine of the apostles and in the fellowship and in the breaking of the bread and in the prayer. 43 And fear was on every soul, and many wonders and signs were through the apostles. 44 And all the believers were upon the same, and they were having all common. liii 45 And the possessions and the goods they were selling and dividing them to all, as any were having need. 46 And each day continuing with one accord in the temple and breaking bread at each house, liv they were receiving lv food in gladness and simplicity lvi of heart, 47 praising God and having grace with all the people, and the Lord was adding the ones being saved lvii daily lviii to the assembly. lix

Acts 1 - Acts 3

Translated by Darwin Fish. See original pdf. lx

  1. πεντηκοστῆς (pentêkostês) - “Pentecost” - found also only in Acts 20:16; 1 Corinthians 16:8. Πεντηκοστῆς (pentêkostês) is the feminine form of the word for “fifty.” LXX Leviticus 25:10-11 has πεντηκοστὸν (pentêkostov) for the “fiftieth” year. See Leviticus 23:16 LXX where πεντήκοντα (pentêkosta) is “fifty.” In Leviticus 23:15f fifty days (seven Sabbaths, seven weeks) were to be counted from the day the firstfruits were offered, and then a new grain offering was to be made. Deuteronomy 16:9-10 likewise notes seven weeks were to be counted “from the time you begin to put the sickle to the grain.” This same event is noted as the Feast of Weeks in Exodus 34:22; Numbers 28:26; Deuteronomy 16:16; 2 Chronicles 8:13. πεντήκοντα (pentêkosta) “fifty” is found in the NT in Mark 6:40; Luke 7:41; 9:14; 16:6; John 8:57; 21:11; Acts 13:20. ^
  2. Critical Text adds ὁμοῦ (homou) “together.” ^
  3. τῶν (tôn) - “which is” - more literally, “of the” ^
  4. διαλέκτῳ (dialektô) - “language” - found also in Acts 2:8; 21:40; 22:2; 26:14. ^
  5. Ἐξίσταντο . . . καὶ ἐθαύμαζον (Existanto . . . kai ethaumazon) “amazed and marveled” - both verbs are in the imperfect (continual past action). ^
  6. Πάρθοι (Parthoi) - “Parthians” - only found here. ^
  7. Μῆδοι (Mêdoi) - “Medes” - only found here. ^
  8. Ἐλαμῖται (Elamitai) – “Elamites” - only found here. ^
  9. Μεσοποταμίαν (Mesopotamian) - “Mesopotamia” - found also only in Acts 7:2. ^
  10. Καππαδοκίαν (Kappadokian) - “Cappadocia” - found also only in 1 Peter 1:1. ^
  11. Πόντον (Ponton) - “Pontus” - found also in 1 Peter 1:1. ^
  12. Ἀσίαν (Asian) - “Asia” - also only found in Acts 19:10, 22; 20:18; 27:2. ^
  13. Φρυγίαν (Phugian) - “Phrygia” - found also only in Acts 16:6; 18:23. ^
  14. Παμφυλίαν (Pamphulian) - “Pamphylia” - found also only in Acts 14:24; 27:5. ^
  15. Λιβύης (Libuês) “Libya” - only found here. ^
  16. Κυρήνην (Kurênên) – Cyrene – only found here. ^
  17. Κρῆτες (Krêtes) - “Cretans” - also found only in Titus 1:12. ^
  18. Ἄραβες (Arabes) - “Arabs” - only found here. ^
  19. Τί ἂν θέλοι τοῦτο εἶναι (Ti an thelou touto eivai) “what this might be” - similar phrase in Acts 17:20. ^
  20. Γλεύκους (gleukous) - “new wine” - only found here. ^
  21. Ἰουδαῖοι (Ioudaioi) - “Jewish” - NAS; NKJV “of Judea”; KJV “of Judaea” - This is the word for “Jews” and is the same exact word as in Acts 2:10 for “Jews.” The word for “of Judea” is Ἰουδαίας (Ioudaias) e.g. Luke 1:5. ^
  22. Ιωηλ (iôêl) - “Joel” - Hebrew יוֹאֵל (yoêl) – See 1 Samuel 2:8 for the first occurrence of this name. ^
  23. These speaking in tongues were prophesying. ^
  24. πρεσβύτεροι (presbuteroi) - “elders” ^
  25. “And also” - καί γε (kai ye) – Joel 2:29 (H3:2) has וְגַם (vegam) “And also.” ^
  26. “male slaves” - δούλους (doulous) ^
  27. “female slaves” - δούλας (doulas) ^
  28. “awesome” - ἐπιφανῆ (epiphanê) – only found here in NT. The word for the Hebrew text in Joel 2:31 (H3:4) is נּוֹרָא (norâ') which is “awesome” (NKJV) or “fearful.” LXX Joel 2:31 likewise has ἐπιφανῆ (epiphanê). See likewise in Joel 2:11 ἐπιφανὴς (“terrrible”) for נוֹרָא (norâ'); Joshua 13:6 ἐπιφανής (“awesome”); Habakkuk 1:7 ἐπιφανὴς (“dreadful”); Malachi 1:14 ἐπιφανὲς (“feared”); Malachi 4:5 (H3:23) ἐπιφανῆ (“dreadful”) - all have נוֹרָא (norâ'). ^
  29. This is found in Joel 2:28-32 (H3:1-5). The Greek in Acts 2:17-21 does not follow exactly either the LXX or the Hebrew. ^
  30. Ἰσραηλῖται (Israêlitai) - “Israelis” - see footnote for John 1:47. ^
  31. τὸν Ναζωραῖον (ton Nazôraion) - “the Nazarene” - KJV; NKJV “of Nazareth” - see footnote for Matthew 2:23. ^
  32. ἀποδεδειγμένον (apodedeigmenon) - “attested” - found also only in Acts 25:7 (“prove”); 1 Corinthians 4:9 (“displayed”); 2 Thessalonians 2:4 (“showing”). ^
  33. Προωρώμην (proôrômên) - “I was foreseeing” - imperfect ^
  34. κατασκηνώσει (kataskênôsei) - “nest” - also only found in Matthew 13:32 (“nest”); Mark 4:32 (“nest”); Luke 13:19 (“nested”). Related noun, κατασκηνώσεις (kataskênôseis) “nests” found only in Matthew 8:20 & Luke 9:58. Psalm 16:9 uses יִשְׁכֹּן (yishkon) “dwell.” ^
  35. ἐγκαταλείψεις (egkataleipseis) - “will . . . forsake” - see footnote for Matthew 27:46. ^
  36. ὅσιόν (hosion) - “holy one” NKJV - found also only in Acts 13:34 (“mercies,” ὅσια [hosia] pl.), 35 (“holy one”); 1 Timothy 2:8 (“holy”); Titus 1:8 (“holy”); Hebrews 7:26 (“holy”); Revelation 16:5 (“Holy One” NAS, CT, RT; not in Majority Text). More common word for “holy” is ἅγιος (hagios) e.g. Acts 6:13; 7:33; 13:9. ^
  37. The Hebrew in Psalm 16:10 reads, :לא־תִתֵּן תֲ֜סִידְךָֹ לִרְאוֹת שָׁתַת (lo tittên' chasiydkhâ ot'lir shâchat) "You will not give your kind one to see [the] pit.” The word for “your kind one” is חֲ֜סִידְךָֹ (chasiydkhâ) which is an adjective related to the word for “kindness” (חֶסֶד [chesed], e.g. Genesis 24:12) often translated “lovingkindness” (e.g. Psalm 17:7 NKJV) or “mercy” (e.g. Psalm 136 repeatedly). The noun “pit” (שָׁחַת [shâchat] e.g. Psalm 7:15[H16] “ditch” NKJV; KJV; NAS; Psalm 9:15[H16] “pit” NKJV; KJV; NAS) is used in the Hebrew, which fits typical Hebrew parallelism for this verse, “sheol/pit.” The LXX appears to have translated this noun after the Hebrew verb with the same spelling, שָׁחַת (shâchat) “he was corrupted” with the Greek noun, διαφθοράν (diaphthoran) “corruption,” which is the same Greek word Peter uses here in Acts 2:27. ^
  38. ἐξὸν (exon) - “being lawful” - present active participle – same exact word found in Matthew 12:4 (“lawful”) & 2 Corinthians 12:4 (“lawful”). ^
  39. πατριάρχου (patriarchou) - “patriarch” ^
  40. ὀσφύος (osphuos) - “loins” - KJV & NKJV “loins” - translated “waist” in Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6; Luke 12:35; Ephesians 6:14, and “loins” in Hebrews 7:5, 10; 1 Peter 1:13. The waist area or loins are how Scripture describes from which descendants come (Hebrews 7:5, 10). That is the area of the sexual organ. See e.g. Genesis 2:7 and footnote. ^
  41. τὸ κατὰ σάρκα ἀναστήσειν τὸν χριστόν (to kata sarka anastêsein ton christon) - “which is according to flesh to raise up the Christ” - not found in the Critical Text. ^
  42. Interesting, Peter applies this statement to Christ, whereas David said in Psalm 16, from which Peter quoted, “For you will not forsake my soul into Hades.” ^
  43. In Acts 1:15 it is recorded there was about 120 of them. That's a lot of witnesses! At some point in time Christ appeared to over 500 (1 Corinthians 15:6). ^
  44. David's body was still in the grave (Acts 2:29). He was not resurrected and did not ascend as Christ did. ^
  45. ποδῶν (podôn) - “feet” - see footnote for Matthew 5:35. ^
  46. ἀσφαλῶς (asphalôs) - “assuredly” - see footnote for Mark 14:14. ^
  47. κατενύγησαν (katevugêsan) - “they were cut” - found only here in the NT. ^
  48. ποιήσωμεν (poiêsômen) - “should we do” - aorist active subjunctive – MT & CT – RT ποιήσομεν (poiêsomen) “shall we do” - future active indicative ^
  49. ἐπὶ (epi) - “upon” - Acts 8:16; 19:5; 1 Corinthians 1:13 εἰς (eis) “into” or “unto”; Acts 10:48; Colossians 3:17 ἐν (en) “in”. ^
  50. προσκαλέσηται (proskalesêtai) - “might call” - aorist subjunctive ^
  51. σκολιᾶς (skolias) - “crooked” - see footnote for Luke 3:5. ^
  52. προσκαρτεροῦντες (proskarterountes) - “continuing” - Although KJV & NKJV translate this “continued steadfastly,” elsewhere they translate this same exact word (προσκαρτεροῦντες) as “continued” (Acts 1:14), “continuing” (Acts 2:46), “continuing” (Romans 12:12 KJV; “continuing steadfastly” NKJV), “continually” (Romans 13:6). ^
  53. κοιναῖς (koinais) - “common” - see footnote for Mark 7:2. ^
  54. κατ᾽ οἶκον (kat' oikon) - “at each house” - KJV; NKJV “from house to house” ^
  55. μετελάμβανον (metelambanon) - “receiving” - only found also in Acts 24:25 (“have a convenient”); 27:33-34 (“to take”); 2 Timothy 2:6 (“to partake”); Hebrews 6:7 (“receives”); 12:10 (“partakers”). ^
  56. ἀφελότητι (aphelotêti) - “simplicity” - only found here. ^
  57. τοὺς σωζομένους (tous sôzomenous) - “the ones being saved” - present passive participle, likewise found in 1 Corinthians 1:18 (τοῖς . . . σῳζομένοις [tois . . . sôzomenois] present passive particle, “who are being saved” NKJV; NAS); 2 Corinthians 2:15 (τοῖς σῳζομένοις [tois sôzomenois] present passive particle, “those who are being saved” NKJV; NAS); Romans 3:24 (δικαιούμενοι [dikaioumenoi] present passive particle, “being justified” NKJV; KJV; NAS); Hebrews 2:11 (οἱ ἁγιαζόμενοι [oi hagiazomenoi] present passive particle, “those who are being sanctified” NKJV); 10:14 (τοὺς ἁγιαζομένους [tous hagiazomenous] present passive particle, “those who are being sanctified” NKJV). Salvation is continual, as Acts 13:39 says, “everyone who believes is justified” (“is justified” δικαιοῦται [dikaioutai] present passive indicative). See also Romans 8:34 (“makes intercession” ἐντυγχάνει [entugchanei] present active indicative); Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 1:7; 2:1-2; 5:18 (“keeps himself” NKJV; KJV; MT, RT “τηρεῖ ἑαυτόν” [têrei heauton]; CT “τηρεῖ αὐτόν” [têrei auton] “keeps him”); Jude 21 “keep yourselves”; Luke 21:19 (“By your patience possess your souls”); Romans 2:7 “by patient continuance”. See also Psalm 121:7-8; 25:21; 36:6; 40:11; Proverbs 2:11; 4:6; 14:3; 2 Timothy 4:17-18 (“preserve” σώσει [sôsei] “save”). ^
  58. καθ᾽ ἡμέραν (kat' êmeran) - “daily” ^
  59. ἐκκλησίᾳ (ekklêsia) - “assembly” - see footnote for Matthew 16:18. ^
  60. Mirrored here^

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